Thursday, March 26, 2015

Participatory 3D modelling in Madagascar: a major first

Located 35 km from the capital Antananarivo, Avaratrambolo water catchment, which has three fokontany (a traditional Madagascan village or a group of villages): Avaratrambolo, Ampahitrizina and Ambohitrakely, is in the rural commune of Ambohitrolomahitsy. It covers an area of more than 13 km². The agro-climatic and socio-economic characteristics of the water catchment are typical of the central region of Madagascar, which is characterised by high plateaux.

A rural development project called Ndao Hivoatra ("Let's move towards change") is being implemented in the three fokontany. It is funded by the World Bank through the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) and is run by Artelia Madagascar with technical support provided by Farming and Technology for Africa (FTA), as well as scientific support provided by the National Centre of Applied Research for Rural Development (FOFIFA).

The chief of the Commune illustrating the 3D model to
government authorities and members of the local communities
To stimulate community participation, the project management team opted for a new, more participatory approach that had been tested in other countries – participatory 3D modelling (P3DM) – a first for Madagascar. The P3DM exercise took place from 3 to 13 February 2015, with the active participation of residents of the three fokontany, project staff, local co-facilitators, various non-governmental organisations (NGO) and two experienced facilitators from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The latter were supported by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA). The exercise comprised three distinct phases: construction of the model, development of the map legend and development of the model using data based on mental recollections of the residents. The model covers a total land area of 2,304 ha; it is on a scale of 1:3,000 (1 cm on the model corresponding to 30 m on the ground) and measures 1.6 m on each side.

The first phase required precise work: i.e. each action that was taken demanded the greatest attention to detail. This manual work was the responsibility of 20 volunteer students from the public primary school in Avaratrambolo and the Ampahitrizina general secondary school under the guidance of the facilitators from DRC, local co-facilitators, project staff and NGO representatives. It was completed in just two days thanks to the enthusiasm of the pupils and the motivation of the facilitators. Avatrambolo community and mapThe second phase centred on the elaboration of the map legend and how to visualise legend items on the model. This phase was completed in one day through close collaboration between representatives of the three fokontany and external stakeholders. The final phase involved the population of the 3D model, a task that required detailed knowledge of the local agro-ecological environment. This phase involved the active participation of the local population; men, women, young people, elders and leaders were all involved in the task. In other words, it demonstrated the effectiveness of the participatory approach as most of the community came together to identify and depict the land and its characteristics on the map according to the previously defined legend; this was completed without the intervention of experts and facilitators.

During the process, the local community mumbled doubts as to whether the map could have any use for them. Once the 3D map was completed, their first observation was that their rice fields covered only a small part of the area, which left them a much larger area available for farming. The second observation gave rise to problems related to land tenure, an issue which is high on the national agenda. Certain participants were persuaded that, thanks to this tool, this issue would be addressed by a discussion around the model with land agents. The third was in relation to the water network; project staff noted that the area is rich in water, and that the efficient management of this resource was essential, which is one of the project's objectives. Once completed, the 3D model was unveiled to the general public, including children to adults and even those who were not local to the area.

In conclusion, this first P3DM exercise has been a success, as project implementers have been receiving requests for its replication since its presentation. It demonstrates the essence of the participatory approach, as during all of the phases the active participation of different groups of the local communities, with no concern for social status, circumstances or gender was visible. In other words, the discrimination barrier was removed. We can therefore be confident that this exercise will not stop here. It is only the first in a series of such operations, as this participatory tool has demonstrated its power and richness at all levels of rural society.

Below is a short interviews with the lead facilitator, Mr Barthélemy Boika Mahambi.

Dominique Bikaba from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) attended the exercise as observer and co-facilitator. He is now in the process of organising a similar exercise in his country.

Written by Christian Andrianarison Sitraka and Sarobidy Hasimbola Razanajatovo Tsilavo

Sunday, March 15, 2015

Eagle-cam: Incredible POV shot as bird descends from world's tallest building

New frontiers of participatory mapping?

The eagle has landed! And what a journey it was. Watch as Darshan soars above the Dubai sky, capturing stunning views of the world beneath his wings. This Imperial Eagle has broken a world record by flying from the top of the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa It was set up by conservation group Freedom Conservation, in order to raise awareness of the plight of the endangered bird of prey. Eagle-cam foogtage courtesy of Freedom Conservation

Friday, March 06, 2015

Participatory Data

Participatory 3D modelling (P3DM) is a community-based tool that builds on local and indigenous knowledge for a variety of purposes, such as land use planning, watershed management, disaster prevention, communication and advocacy.  

Participatory 3D modelling (P3DM) is a community-based tool – better defined as a ‘process’ – that integrates local spatial knowledge with data on land elevation and sea depth to produce a physical model. Local communities participate in the model building of the territory that they rely on for their livelihoods and cultural practices. The kind of data that the P3DM process generates are extremely diverse, but essentially it are data that are relevant for local knowledge holders: from land cover and land use to infrastructure – all of which are intimately related to a given people’s culture, their sacred sites, and burial grounds.

Local knowledge holders may be interested in sharing data, but there may also be data that they may consider private and sensitive. However, they may like to locate and document this data solely for their internal use. They may wish to maintain strategic control over the information that is shared, how it is released and to whom.

P3DM has already been used in a variety of contexts: claim land ownership, transfer knowledge across generations, and manage conflicts. It has recently started to take off in the Pacific region, enabling people in small island countries – where rising sea levels are posing a serious risk to many people’s livelihoods – to take informed decisions about how best to manage risk and adapt to climate change.

Origins of P3DM  

P3DM was initially used in the late 1980s in Thailand, to demonstrate where the Royal Forestry Department was developing plantations for catchment rehabilitation. As such it was a conservation-based demonstration tool, not a participatory tool. Dr Uraivan Tan-Kim-Yong, an anthropologist at Chiang Mai University, was running a research programme involving hill tribe people. She invited her students to make small Styrofoam models and bring them to the villages to discuss soil conservation and soil erosion issues.

These models proved useful and eventually drew the attention of other parties, who began to develop and deploy the P3DM process. The Thai-German Highland Development Programme (TG-HDP) (1981-1998) funded by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation was on the forefront in making use of the tool [1]. For the first time the 3D models began to be used on a village-to-village basis and in a participatory manner. 3D models started to shift from being a demonstration tool to an education tool, and finally a planning tool. In 1993, a workshop was held in Thailand attended by several NGOs from Southeast Asia. Organisations such as the Philippine Association for Intercultural Development (PAFID) and Green Forum Western Visayas began to embrace P3DM and started using it with indigenous people. It enabled them to address the demand coming from tribal minority groups to generate a great deal of data to prove their ancestral occupancy of land and waters in order to get their customary rights of tenure and use recognised by the government. Over the years, P3DM has benefited from the creativity of the many practitioners who have been engaged in the process.

Initial challenges  

All new technologies face implementation challenges. With P3DM, the initial one is posed by the availability of sufficiently detailed, up-to-date and accurate digital elevation models (DEMs). For example, some DEMs were produced decades ago. So if a blank model is constructed based on an obsolete elevation model, knowledge holders may point out landscape features that have changed, such as an eroded coastline, a mutated river’s course or slope that was altered by a landslide. Once the DEM issue is solved, the model is populated by local knowledge holders, where they share and visualise their spatial knowledge. People have a lot of fun doing this kind of exercise and get a great deal of gratification from it.

Another challenge is the difficulty of applying P3DM to map out large areas, such as an entire country. P3DM requires substantial preparation and logistics. As a result, the tool is often deployed in hotspots, or critical areas. In small island countries it is a useful tool used to map land and seascapes, and eventually large parts of an entire country.

In certain countries the use of P3DM has had a definite impact on policy. In the Philippines, the government has adopted the process in many different contexts, from conflict resolution to awarding indigenous tenure on land and water. In 2001 the minister of the environment and natural resources signed a memorandum circular that recommends the use of P3DM in “protected area planning and sustainable natural resource management” [2]. As of November 2014, in the Philippines 165 models were made that provided critical data for policy making. Samoa is a more recent case where the government has embraced the process in the context of climate change adaptation and community-based risk management.

At international levels, P3DM has been cited as a recommended process by CTA, UNDP, IFAD, GEF, UNESCO and more recently by IUCN in the context of the 2014 “Promise of Sydney”.

From physical to digital  

Custodianship of the 3D model is important to determine where the models are stored and who is responsible for their conservation, use and updating. A model is useless if it is locked up in a room where people cannot access it, or if it is stored under a glass cover and becomes a museum piece. The models have to be part of everyday life. They are used to educate children about local geography and history. This is true of physical models which are usually under the direct control of the knowledge holders. However, their digital representation follows a different path and has usually different custodians.

Once the data goes from physical to digital there is a risk that it will be misused or unwittingly shared. It is crucial that the intermediaries appointed as custodians of the data, are a trusted and reliable entity that will protect the data and respond to the community’s wishes in terms of data sharing. Trust and ethics play an important role in this. Research work may be extractive and could fail to consider that the mapping process should first and foremost benefit the knowledge holders. Unscrupulous individuals may entice people to share data to exploit resources. P3DM implies that a high level of ethics is applied and trust established between the actors involved: the knowledge holders and the technology intermediaries / facilitators.

In 2006 the community of practitioners focusing on Participatory GIS practice has developed a guideline [3] on practical ethics for PGIS practitioners, facilitators, technology intermediaries and researchers to stimulate the adoption of good practice. It has been published in 12 languages and governs the way people doing participatory mapping should behave in the process of generating, handling, storing and sharing data. The code recommends that knowledge holders remain in full control throughout the process and that data are gathered and eventually shared with their free prior informed consent (FPIC).

For the most part, P3DM data have been well protected. But there have been cases where data entered into a model were misused. In South-East Asia, there are accounts that graveyards located on a 3D model were plundered because such data were not removed and left accessible to the public. Therefore, it is important to make people aware of the implications of geo-locating sensitive data and making it public. They can then decide what to visualise, what to leave or remove from the model.

One of the most important components of a P3DM process is to involve external agencies from the very beginning. This can raise awareness among “outsiders” about the depth, accuracy and relevance of local knowledge. This may induce a new sense of esteem for local knowledge holders.


[1] P3DM for Participatory Land Use Planning (PLUP) in Thailand, Integrated Approaches to Participatory Development (IAPAD).
[2] Participatory 3-Dimensional Modelling as a Strategy in Protected Area Planning and Sustainable Natural Resources Management. Memorandum, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Republic of the Philippines, Integrated Approaches to Participatory Development (IAPAD).
[3] Rambaldi,G., Chambers, R., MCcall M. And Fox, J. (2006) Practical ethics for PGIS practitioners, facilitators, technology intermediaries and researchers, Participatory Learning and Action, 54, IIED (April) 106-113.

Related links  

Thursday, January 22, 2015

Participatory Data: Public or Private?

Participatory 3D modelling (P3DM) is a community-based process centred, which integrates local spatial knowledge with data on elevation of the land and depth of the sea to produce physical 3D models. Residents of a given area assemble a 3D model of the territory they rely on for their livelihoods and cultural practices. P3DM is used for a number of purposes and addresses a range of issues including spatial planning, land tenure, climate change adaptation, intergenerational knowledge exchange, building community identity, documenting local knowledge for advocacy purposes, and more.

P3DM has been used mostly in developing countries in rural areas. A P3DM exercise covering an area of 1000 km2 at a 1:10000-scale lasts approximately 10 days and involves 50-100 knowledge holders. The resulting 3D map stores a huge amount of geo-located data, matching a well-defined legend. The legend - developed by the local communities - includes point, line and polygon data; it reflects local and traditional knowledge of all sectors of society, including women and elders. Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) obtained, data displayed on the 3D model are imported into GIS environments and further analysed and compared with other data sets. Depending on the scale used, a P3DM exercise may generate up to 80 layers of information including land cover, resource use and tenure, social infrastructure, settlements, sites of cultural significance and more. Some data may be considered as sensitive by the knowledge holders and treated as confidential (i.e. removed from the model or stored as classified layers in a GIS). Custodians of data (usually NGOs operating on behalf of communities) should manage these according on ethical principles and agreed procedures.

P3DM works best at 1:5000 – 1:10000 scale or larger. The larger the scale (1:5000 is larger than 1:10,000), the more detailed and diversified the input of the knowledge holders will be. As a consequence, P3DM can be applied on moderately large areas (1000-4000 km2) at a time, although repeated exercises may result in the full coverage of small island nations. In countries covering large portion of the Earth, P3DM can and should be applied on selected “hot spots” to address specific issues.

As a follow-up to the 2006 “Mapping for Change” Conference which took place in Nairobi, the Community of Practice devoted to the improvement of Participatory GIS (PGIS) practice, developed guidelines on “Practical ethics for PGIS practitioners, facilitators, technology intermediaries and researchers” available 12 languages.

Data generation is part of the P3DM process, but not its end. Evidence has proved that as a result of the process, knowledge holders gain a deeper understanding of their bio-physical and social environments, heightened awareness on the importance of sound and climate-smart resource management and more. Data are usually generated to serve the process as the communities (all generations) learn by doing and to empower knowledge holders in interfacing with higher authorities.
Sharing of data is strategic and meant to serve purposes set by the knowledge holders. On the other hand the process allows for traditional and scientific knowledge systems to come together and make use of or build on the best of the two “worlds”.

Thursday, January 15, 2015

CTA Open Seminar: "Participatory Data: Public or Private?"

The seminar "Participatory Data: Public or Private? is organised by CTA in anticipation of the forthcoming International Open Data Day

"Within Participatory mapping processes participatory data are usually generated to serve the process itself as the communities learn by doing and to empower knowledge holders in interfacing with higher authorities. Sharing of such data is strategic and meant to serve purposes set (ideally) by the knowledge holders. On the other hand the process allows for traditional and scientific knowledge systems to come together and make use of or build on the best of the two worlds."

When? Wednesday, 21 January,  2015, 10:00 – 12:00
Where? CTA, Agro Business Park 2, 6708 Wageningen, The Netherlands;
What?: get the flyer
Who? all those interested.
How? you are free to join. Here is our location on Google Maps

Saturday, January 03, 2015

PGIS / PPGIS Community Growth updates

The PGIS/PPGIS Community of Practice is present on Dgroups since 2003, on LinkedIn since June 2008 and Facebook since May 2010.

Here are some stats about its growth:

# of members on 31/12/14:       2,643
Growth over the year 2014:         +3%

# of members on 31/12/14:      2,364
Growth over the year 2014:         +6%

# of Likes on 31/12/14:             1,428
Growth over the year 2014:        +14%

# of followers on 31/12/14:          611
Growth over the year 2014:        +10%

A new PGIS twitter account has been creates to report on PGIS activities run by CTA. You are welcome to follow it as well.

Be reminded that on Dgroups there are four PGIS/PPGIS communities. One for a global audience in English, and language-defined French, Spanish and Portuguese chapters. The above image shows the geographic distribution on members on the global (English) list.

Thursday, December 25, 2014

Iligan City Participatory 3D Modelling

A participatory 3D mapping (P3DM) skillshare in Iligan City, Philippines. This is a component of the Greenpeace Climate Crisis Response Project.