Friday, July 11, 2014

From Solomon Islands to the Philippines: my PGIS learning journey - My expectations (blog post 2)

What I expect to gain from the Philippines P3DM / PGIS process

My overall expectations for attending the Philippines PGIS are vast. However, I shall limit the list to the following:
  1. Gain practical knowledge and skills on how to facilitate and organise stakeholders into a participatory process and to know when and how to hand over the spatial information generating process to the concerned groups.
  2. Acquire practical skills on how to select and procure appropriate inputs for the manufacture of a physical 3D map.
  3. Gain hands on experience in the process of capturing and digitizing data displayed on the model and their processing for desired outcomes.
  4. Discover appropriate approaches to assess, manage spatial data and strategise on how to use them to help concerned communities achieve their objectives 
  5. Learn how to present the output to external agencies for various purposes including, e.g. policy making, disaster recovery, land use planning, land-based conflict management, climate change adaptation.
  6. Acquire facilitator skills – maintain a collaborative, neutral presence (not too dictatorial) when populating spatial information on the model map
  7. Align, impact and measure the outcome of a P3DM on the intended scenario.
  8. Improve and advance my capacity on the use of Web 2.0 and Social Media. 
During my participation, I believe that my theoretical knowledge on the subject will be enriched by practical experience and best serve an eventual replication of the P3DM process in Solomon Islands.

Follow the learning journey of Wilfred Don Dorovoqa, a member of the Padezaka tribe in Solomon Islands. 

Supported by CTA, Wilfred Don has embarked in a journey which will bring him from Sasamuqa Village to Estancia in the Philippines where he will participate in a participatory mapping exercise. Green Forum – Western Visayas, Inc. (GF-WV) in partnership with Aksyon Klima Pilipinas and the Rebuild Project is facilitating the implementation of a  Participatory 3-Dimensional Modelling (P3DM) process in an area which was severely affected by Supertyphoon Haiyan in November  2013. GF-WV is using the P3DM as an ICT tool for allowing communities to analyse their vulnerabilities and assist them in planning for reconstruction.

From Solomon Islands to the Philippines: my PGIS learning journey - How it all started (blog post 1)

My name is Wilfred Don Dorovoqa. I am a member of the Padezaka tribe in Solomon Islands. I am about to embark on a challenging learning journey and I thought it would be interesting to document and share it with people having similar interests and aspirations.

This is my first blogpost. More will follow.

I left Sasamuqa Village (S 7°02’18.49” E 156°45’54.33”) in the early hours of June 16, 2014 by OBM boat and arrived at Gizo (S 8°06’12.99” E 156°50’27.80”) that same day, a three to four hour journey by boat.  From there, I took a passenger boat for a two day journey to Honiara (S 9°25’52.13” E 159°57’33.57”), where I am today waiting for the trip to the Philippines.

How it all started: Embarking on the P3DM / PGIS learning journey

In 2009 I came across the concept of P3DM on the Internet, while I was searching customizable mapping resources for local spatial data entry that derived from non-technical / non-machine readable formats. I was captivated by the distinct nature and approach of the P3DM process, taking into account that at that time I was already familiar with the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) concept. I assisted in a contracted PRA activity that aimed to identify and further develop livelihood measures for a localized World Wildlife Fund (WWF) conservation project based on four indigenous land owning groups of Choiseul Island, Solomon Islands, where I was holding a position as secretary for one of the groups. The conservation efforts were funded by the European Union , and led by the Ministry of Forestry in Solomon Islands.

Simultaneously, the Padezaka tribe, pursued its land based conservation initiative under a separate NGO in Solomon Islands called ‘Live and Learn’. The Padezaka tribe was eventually very fortunate to become a selected recipient of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) – Small Grants Programme funds coordinated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) office based in Honiara, the capital city of Solomon Islands. As a member of the Padezaka tribe, I have very strong land and blood ties with the local community, and have been heavily involved in most of their conservation activities. The network of local protected areas attempts to conserve 17 percent of the highest priority terrestrial ecosystem of the Choiseul Island in adherence to the convention on biodiversity to which Solomon Islands is a signatory.

My search for mapping resources on the web was motivated by the fact that three conservation land units were under WWF conservation initiatives, including the Padezaka tribal land. Here, the conservation land units were all situated in the same segment of a significant freshwater system, locally known as the Kolobangara River. Major logging activities authorised by government, occurred further upstream while  government-endorsed WWF conservation initiatives were concentrated downstream. Indeed, upstream deforestation posed a significant threat to the livelihoods of local communities. It was a counteractive measure to monitor and moderate critical changes to the natural environment. Currently, all stakeholders involved need to come to an agreement to implement an alternative measure. One possible alternative is to produce a collaborative map with detailed land use that covers the entire watershed of the Kolobangara River.

Given this, my research eventually landed me on the front steps of the local provincial planning advisor’s house, an expatriate from New Zealand working for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Solomon Islands Office. The planning advisor assisted the Choiseul government in provincial-wide planning, project implementation and monitoring. He was very helpful and promised to update me on any available opportunities that need expert assistance for a future P3DM exercise comprising the concerned land area. In anticipation, the Padezaka Tribe submitted a budget under the GEF-Small Grants Programme fund for a P3DM project in the Padezaka bio-diversity protected sites; to generate a well defined land use plan, consult, invite and include the contiguous land owning tribes for broad holistic land-based planning activities. This of course, will work if there is an environment conducive to collaborative planning that can systematically and coherently tackle the issue of the endangered watershed areas by creating a sectoral land and resource management plan in advance. We estimated that the availability of the P3DM opportunity would coincide with the disbursement and implementation of the external fund.

Our desire for P3DM does not materialise the Padezaka Conservation Project funds. These included GEF-Small Grants Programme funds that were mismanaged by the implementing NGO, which ceased to be operational whilst subjected to that same timeframe. WWF also closed its doors to the other four local land groups, perhaps due to the lapse of the funding contract. However, the Choiseul provincial advisor was true to his word and invited me to attend a P3DM introductory workshop in May 2012. It was jointly organized by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), TNC and UNDP held in the Capital of the Solomon Islands. During this organised workshop, I repeatedly called on our provincial leaders in attendance to convene an extensive P3DM of the whole Island of Choiseul but was adhered not to.

Fundamentally, this is the dominant culture in PGIS practices found in some areas of the Southern hemisphere. In the Northern hemisphere, I believe the public is more proactive in using PGIS to enhance, empower and improve their way of life. At the very structure of our society there is a lack of proactive dimensions needed to engender a collaborative planning process that measures collective growth. This weakness is inherent to those tribes whose land comprises the noted watershed area. Furthermore, the National River Act was very ineffective in dealing with large scale natural resource extractions, because it had no clear provisions for specific social and natural environment safeguards. However, I am also fully aware of the fact that some methodologies and techniques incorporated into the PRA approach have limitations for discovering effective solutions in the midst of the large scale emergence of this environmental threat.

Friday, May 23, 2014

A three-way dialogue on climate change

The peasant, the decision-maker, the researcher and Participatory 3d Modelling

In the numerous bus stations in N’Djamena, the capital of Chad, all passengers, arriving from other parts of the country, with their bag of worries, know where to find a sympathetic ear. Aladji Ibrahim’s steps lead him to Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim, the coordinator of AFPAT, an organisation which defends the rights of Bororos pastoralists. This is the start of a story of people, animals, space and human rights with, at centre stage, an outstanding “character”: a three-dimensional model. This tool, displayed within an administrative office in Baïbokoum, almost 600 km from N’Djamena, is proving to be an unexpected medium for promoting the dialogue between peasants, local authorities, scientists and national public authorities, all concerned about climate change, reducing conflicts between faming and herding communities, territorial development, the promotion of human rights, ...

Three-way dialogue on climate change

This documentary completes a trilogy of films, produced in phases.

November 2011: IPACC and AFPAT co-organised, with the support of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), a workshop on pastoralism, traditional knowledge, meteorology and the development of policies for adapting to climate change. Climate governance was the focus of the debates, with around the table indigenous herders from South Africa, Kenya, Namibia and Niger, meteorologists, ministers and representatives of international organisations. This workshop culminated in the so-called N’djamena Declaration , which emphasised the urgent need to involve vulnerable groups in the development of policies to mitigate climate change. It recommended the use of participatory approaches and visualisation tools to represent the available space at community level.

Climate Governance: A matter of survival for nomadic pastoralists

July–August 2012. The Baïbokoum workshop on Participatory three-Dimensional Modelling (P3DM), with as its theme the prevention and management of conflicts between farming and herding communities, implemented the N’djamena recommendations. The combination of the knowledge of indigenous communities and the skills of experienced facilitators resulted in the production of a physical three-dimensional model depicting in detail an area of 720 sq km at a 1:10,000 scale.

Dangers in the bush, map of good faith

One year on, what has become of the model, the result of the multi-stakeholder dialogue? The third documentary answers this question. It narrates the journey undertaken by Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim to Baïbokoum. At her destination, she meets pastoralists and edgy authorities. They would like to popularise the model with farmers, traditional community leaders and in local development programmes. But they lack the necessary technical and financial resources. Their cry from the heart is conveyed to N’Djamena by the tireless advocate of the cause of Bororos herdsman: Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim.

PGIS Tutorials by SEI, York, UK

These online video guides and slides provide practical information and examples on designing, planning, undertaking and then analysing community maps using GIS techniques. The video guides describe in detail the steps needed to prepare for community consultations using maps, examples of collection methods and then detailed information on how convert participatory maps into digital spatial databases. Finally there are example slide resources on how you can use community mapping and PGIS to improve environmental decision making outcomes.

Dialogue à trois sur le changement climatique

Le Paysan, Le Décideur, Le Chercheur Et La Cartographie Participative En Trois Dimensions 

Dans les nombreuses gares routières de Ndjaména, la capitale du Tchad, chaque voyageur, venu de l’intérieur du pays avec son balluchon de soucis, sait où trouver une oreille attentive. Les pas de Aladji Ibrahim le conduisent chez Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim, la coordonnatrice d’AFPAT, une organisation de défense des droits des éleveurs peul bororos. Ainsi commence une histoire d’hommes, d’animaux, d’espace et de droits humains avec au centre un étrange personnage : une maquette en trois dimensions. Cet outil, trônant dans un local administratif à Baïbokoum, à près de 600 km de Ndjaména, se révèle un moyen inattendu pour favoriser le dialogue entre paysans, autorités locales, hommes de science et pouvoirs publics nationaux, tous préoccupés par le changement climatique, la diminution des conflits agriculteurs éleveurs, l’aménagement du territoire, la promotion des droits humains…

Dialogue à trois sur le changement climatique.

Ce documentaire boucle une trilogie de films, réalisés en trois temps.

Novembre 2011 :  IPACC et AFPAT co organisent, avec le soutien du Centre de coopération technique et agricole, le CTA, un atelier sur le pastoralisme, la connaissance traditionnelle, la météorologie et l’élaboration de politiques d’adaptation au changement climatique. La gouvernance climatique est au cœur des débats, avec autour de la table, des éleveurs autochtones d’Afrique du sud, du Kenya, de Namibie, du Niger et des météorologues, des ministres ainsi que des représentants d’organisations internationales. Il en ressort une déclaration dite de Ndjaména, qui acte l’urgence d’impliquer les couches vulnérables dans l’élaboration des politiques d’atténuation du changement climatique. L’utilisation d’approches participatives et d’outils de représentation de l’espace utilisables à l’échelle communautaire est recommandée.

Brousse de tous les dangers, carte de tous les espoirs.

Juillet – août 2012. L’atelier de Baïbokoum sur la cartographie participative en trois dimensions, avec comme thématique la prévention et la gestion des conflits agriculteurs et éleveurs, matérialise la recommandation de Ndjaména. La combinaison des savoirs des communautés autochtones et les compétences des facilitateurs expérimentés à aboutie à la réalisation d’une maquette en trois dimensions représentant en détail une superficie de 720 km2 à l’échelle de 1 : 10, 000.

Gouvernance climatique: Une question de survie pour les éleveurs nomades.

Un an après que devient la maquette, fruit de ce dialogue multi acteurs ? Le troisième documentaire (Le Paysan, Le Décideur, Le Chercheur Et La Cartographie Participative En Trois Dimensions) répond à cette question. Il raconte le voyage qu’entreprend Hindou Oumaraou Ibrahim à Baïbokoum. Sur place, elle découvre des éleveurs, des autorités à cran. Ils voudraient vulgariser la maquette auprès des agriculteurs, de la chefferie traditionnelle et dans les programmes locaux de développement. Mais ils sont démunis techniquement et financièrement. Leur cri du cœur remonte à Ndjaména, porté par l’infatigable avocate de la cause des éleveurs Peul bororos : Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim.

Thursday, May 08, 2014

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles used for participatory mapping in Haiti

Since 2010, the free and collaborative OpenStreetMap mapping community has been growing in Haiti. Backed up by the global OSM community and using innovative tools like Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), it keeps improving in order to meet the challenges of tomorrow.

Participatory mapping is a powerful tool to enhance the communities' resilience facing natural disasters, but also to engage an dynamic for the local development of the territory.

The project carried by COSMHA with the support of CartONG and OSM-Fr endeavor to remain extremely concrete while at the same time rising above the issues to help objectivize decision-making. It induces change from and with the local communities.

A Guide to using Community Mapping and Participatory-GIS recently released

This guide, developed by John Forrester and Steve Cinderby from the University of York, UK, provides practical guidance aimed at lay users, community groups and students on whether community mapping and participatory geographic information systems are appropriate methods for the development issue you are investigating. The guide then talks you through the practical steps of designing, running and assessing community information collected using maps. The options, benefits and skills needed for of further analysis of the maps using PGIS are also discussed. Finally, alternative methods that could also be useful for community groups are also considered with links to other information sources.

The Guide to using Community Mapping and Participatory-GIS has been prepared as part of the Managing Borderlands project and funded by the Rural Economy and Land Use (RELU) programme of the Economic & Social and Natural Environment Research Councils

Monday, May 05, 2014

Participatory 3D Modelling (P3DM) for bottom-up decision-making in Vanuatu

In April 2013 a community consultation and a participatory planning process took place on the Island of Epi in Vanuatu. Residents assembled and populated with a rich set of data a 1:20000 scale physical 3D model of the island and its surrounding coastal waters.

This video documents how participants took ownership of the process and made informed decisions on how to address climate change challenges.

The activity has been carried out and the video produced in the framework of the GEF-UNDP-SPREP-supported Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) project.

Source: click here.

Read more:

__________ 2013. Vanuatu PACC Finalizes Project Scope on Epi Island using Participatory 3D Modelling. Newsletter No. 1, Vol 1. Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change (PACC) project

The P3DM process and other cases are documented in this video collection on Vimeo and on this web site.

Monday, March 31, 2014

Guia para Experiências de Mapeamento Comunitário

As experiências de mapeamento comunitário tem sido cada vez mais utilizadas como forma de reivindicar e assegurar direitos territoriais de povos e comunidades tradicionais.

O presente Guia pretende fornecer elementos que apoie mas comunidades a produzirem seus próprios mapas. Ele contem 12 módulos, cada um com suas unidades constituintes. Os módulos cobrem uma serie de tópicos relacionados como mapeamento comunitário, tais como: antecedentes das práticas de mapeamento, considerações éticas da prática de mapeamento, métodos de mapeamento, efeitos do uso de tecnologias de informação espacial e escolha do método.

A difusão do uso do Guia propõe-se a propiciar que as comunidades tradicionais produzam a representação geográfica, a documentação e os meios de comunicação dos conhecimentos que dispõem sobre seus territórios.

Estas experiências devem desenvolver-se sob o controle das próprias comunidades, permitindo-lhes o dialogo com atores externos para a defesa e a reivindicação dos seus direitos.

Para mais informações ou para a obtenção de cópias do guia, entre em contato

Prof. Henri Acselrad
Instituto de Pesquisa e Planejamento Urbano e Regional da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

African Court issues historic ruling protecting rights of Kenya's Ogiek Community

In a recent decision the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights has ruled that the Government of Kenya should "preserve the status quo ante" the orders of eviction of Ogiek community from their ancestral lands in Kenya's Mau Forest.

This is the first time the African Court, in operation since 2006, has intervened to protect the rights of an indigenous community.

‘The Government of Kenya must now fully respect the decision of the Court, which effectively bans land transactions in the Mau Forest Complex,' says Lucy Claridge, MRG's Head of Law.   ‘The court found that, if land transactions continue, there exists a situation of extreme gravity and urgency as well as a risk of irreparable harm to the Ogiek.'

The Mau Forest, one of the main water catchment areas in Kenya, is home to an estimated 15,000 Ogiek families who claim to be indigenous owners of the land. A minority group, the Ogiek have faced, since colonial times, consistent persecution and denial of their land rights, worsening over the last two decades.

Most recently, the Ogiek have been threatened with eviction from their homes in the Eastern Mau, without due consultation, under the guise of protecting the environment. The Ogiek maintain that the forest is most at risk from large-scale logging rather than their own sustainable and traditional practices.

In 2009, frustrated by the lack of progress through national policy and judicial processes, the Ogiek - through MRG, the Ogiek Peoples' Development Programme (OPDP) and Centre for Minority Rights (CEMIRIDE) - decided to file a case with the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights.

In 2012, the Commission referred the matter to the African Court, on the grounds that it evinced serious and mass human rights violations.

In its ruling, the court, based in Arusha, Tanzania, ordered the government of Kenya to halt parceling out land in the disputed forest area until the Court reaches a decision in the matter.

The African Court also ruled that the Kenyan government must refrain from taking any action which would harm the case, until it had reached a decision in the matter.  It reached this decision out of concern that the government's current actions violate the Ogiek's right to enjoyment of their cultural and traditional values, their right to property, as well as their right to economic, social and cultural development, all of which are enshrined in the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights. Kenya is a signatory to the Charter.

‘For many years, the Ogiek have suffered displacement or been threatened with eviction from their ancestral lands, and action is urgently needed to protect their livelihoods, and indeed their survival as an indigenous community. This ruling from the African Court is a positive step towards realization of justice for the Ogiek,' says Daniel Kobei, OPDP's Executive Director.

Adapted from: Minority Rights Group International (MRG)

Additional resources:
  • The Voice of the Ogiek (video)
  • OPAT Atlas (Ogiek Peoples Ancestral Territory Atlas), in Kenya” by Julius Muchemi (ERMIS Africa ) and Albrecht Ehrensperger (University of Bern, Switzerland
    The OPAT Atlas demonstrates the utilization and results of Participatory GIS (PGIS) (results from a mix of Aerial Photograph aided mapping, Participatory 3D Modelling (P3DM), Topographic Map sheets, GPS Survey, etc ) in recording the rights and interests of an Indigenous Peoples living in a highly degraded forest ecosystem and a highly politicized efforts to (i) accord an indigenous people their ancestral rights and interests within Mau Forest Complex, and (ii) restoring a degraded forest of local, national and international importance.
  • Participatory Spatial Information Management and Communication Training Kit

Monday, February 24, 2014

Community Mapping: Finding Stories and Solutions in the Places We Live

Everywhere we go, we find challenges: waste management, poverty, health issues, corruption, drug abuse, fights. The list goes on.

But these challenges are also opportunities for us to act and bring change. In a democracy, we cannot depend on the government to solve all of our problems.

In community mapping, we venture out to different communities to discover what challenges, document their stories using digital media and photography, and explore ways to find solutions.

From July 1-11, 2013, BCMD piloted a community mapping project in Thimphu. 25 youth participated in the mapping of 5 communities: Changzamtog, Hong Kong Market, Changjiji, Motithang, and Changidaphu.

Source: YouTube