Tuesday, December 10, 2019

How mapping changed behaviour

A study of the Samoan experience of participatory three-dimensional modelling (P3DM), a practice which has been widely promoted by CTA, has shown that it has led to better natural resource management, helped local communities become more resilient to climate change and brought about significant changes in the relationship between governments and local communities.

P3DM is a mapping progress which enables local communities to ‘populate’ geo-referenced relief models with their own knowledge about physical features, such as rivers and villages, and the way in which their territory is used, for example for hunting, fishing and growing crops. The maps help to enhance a sense of belonging and local knowledge and many communities have used them to assert their rights, identify resources and opportunities, and devise new strategies for managing the land.

Giacomo Rambaldi, who has led CTA’s work on P3DM, was contacted in 2016 by Barbara Dovarch, a PhD candidate from the University of Sassari, Italy. She was keen to look at the effectiveness of P3DM and Rambaldi suggested she carry out her fieldwork in Samoa. Here, a 5-year project funded by the Global Environment Facility and carried out by the Samoan Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, had used P3DM to sensitise local communities to climate change. Rather than being initiated by the local communities and their partners, as normally happens, P3DM was introduced by a government department as a way to reach communities and gain their trust.

Dovarch found that prior to the introduction of P3DM, community representatives tended to adopt a very passive attitude during consultations with the authorities. “Government officials usually adopted a lecturing style in meetings with community members, using PowerPoint presentations and information leaflets, often without success,” noted Dovarch in her report. However, the P3DM process provided local communities with the opportunity to express their own understanding about their land and take a more active role in resource management. The building of the models also enabled young and old people to talk to one another and exchange knowledge about nature, culture and history.

According to community members who spoke to Dovarch, the process encouraged the government to change the way it behaved towards local people. Now it is much more willing to ‘listen’ rather than ‘teach’. Government officials moved away from ‘consultations’ towards active participation, which helped to build trust on both sides. As far as the government officials were concerned, the P3DM process – in Dovarch’s words – “completely changed the attitude and approach of communities towards their own environment and land management.”

The government of Samoa was initially exposed to P3DM techniques through CTA’s ICT4Ag activities. Since then, it has not only contributed to the development of 19 P3DM models over a 4-year period, but also committed itself to playing an important role in popularising the technique in other parts of the Pacific region, beginning with Tonga. Dovarch described her findings in a CTA working paper in the ICTs for agriculture series, Participatory 3D modelling in Samoa: Triggering behavioural changes in climate change resilience.

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

An innovation from the Philippines: Light-Based Participatory 3D Mapping for Disaster Risk Reduction

In 2004, four consecutive typhoons brought disruption to coastal provinces in the Philippines, including Aurora. Havoc suffered by the province caused massive displacement of indigenous groups residing in the mountainside, such as the Dumagats. In the face of such vulnerability, the need for participatory disaster risk management and improvement of spatial awareness through community-centred innovations is direr now than ever before.

The Prod.Jx, a collective of professionals and artists coming from multiple disciplines – social sciences, environmental sciences, design and the arts; and the Dumagats of Dinggalan, Aurora developed the LIGTASPAD – a Light-Based Participatory 3D (P3D) Mapping Project.

While P3D Mapping is an existing methodology practised by geographers, Prod.Jx employed a rather unique take to further innovate their product – integrating the community’s language for learning, leveraging on its team members’ technical capacities and life experiences, as well as consistently improving their design for local adaptability.

This is from the experience of TUKLAS Innovation Labs which is implemented by Plan International, Action Against Hunger, CARE Philippines, and the Citizens’ Disaster Response Center. TUKLAS is part of the Disasters and Emergencies Preparedness Programme Innovation Labs managed collaboratively by Start Network and CDAC Network, and funded by UK Aid.

The TUKLAS Central and Southern Luzon Lab is led by CARE Philippines.

Source: https://tinyurl.com/y4mw2m5z  

Sunday, June 16, 2019

Suriname / Guyana Participatory Coastal Resource Management Project embraces P3DM practice

The four-year EU-funded “Promoting Integrated and Participatory Ocean Governance in Guyana and Suriname: the Eastern Gate to the Caribbean” project commenced in early 2017 and was officially launched in July 2017.

This project covers the coastal and marine areas of Suriname and Guyana.

The project is implemented through a partnership between WWF Guianas, Green Heritage Fund Suriname (GHFS), Guyana’s Protected Areas Commission (PAC) and the Nature Conservation Division (NCD) of the Suriname Forest Service (‘s Lands Bosbeheer).

The project aims to significantly enhance the governance and protection of marine and coastal resources of Guyana and Suriname through collaborative processes with all ocean stakeholders, improved knowledge of the coastal and marine environment, enhanced capacity of key stakeholders and informed marine spatial management. It will contribute to substantial progress towards achieving Aichi targets 4, 6, 10, 11 and 14 under the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD).

 This project will use a participatory approach to develop comprehensive and visually appealing spatial data that will fill critical information gaps, and facilitate informed decision-making regarding marine management and protection. This participatory approach to marine decision-making will increase the knowledge of the marine environment and related human uses of the marine environment amongst all participating stakeholders by allowing information to be available to everyone.

An Equivalence-Gap Analysis for indigenous peoples (IP) and gender will ensure equity and participation of these marginalized groups, and that their needs are explicitly addressed in the decision-making process of this project. The participatory approach in its entirety builds stakeholder capacity and highlights the important role stakeholders can and should play in marine governance.

Increased marine protection and strengthened governance through participatory spatial planning, targeted capacity building, and compelling data, will demonstrate that MSP can produce “win-win” outcomes that conserve biodiversity and enhance food security, protect livelihoods and support socio-economic development compatible with ocean health.

A major component of the project is the implementation of a coastal and marine Participatory Three Dimensional Modelling (P3DM). P3DM is a community-based and stakeholder based process, which integrates local spatial knowledge with topographic data to produce a physical 3-D model assembled by mapping participants.

 The value of a marine P3D Modelling process is grounded in the engagement of stakeholders from the beginning of the planning process, which may result in more effective, transparent and durable interventions and can foster a collective decision-making process that may engender ownership of spatial planning processes. A marine P3D Model may constitute a powerful communication and negotiation tool for an actor-led marine spatial planning. This approach will enable information that is only available with certain stakeholders to become available with everyone, greatly increasing the knowledge of all participating stakeholders, but also with the government and general public.

To learn more about P3DM consult www.iapad.org

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Préparer un avenir meilleur

Les personnes qui ont un faible niveau d’éducation et d’alphabétisation ont du mal à se faire entendre. C’est particulièrement vrai pour les communautés autochtones. Leurs connaissances ancestrales et leurs droits sont souvent ignorés par les gouvernements, les sociétés d’exploitation de minerais et d’autres qui souhaitent exploiter leurs terres. Toutefois, cette situation n’est pas inéluctable. En collaborant avec des partenaires locaux, le CTA a contribué à faire d’eux des pionniers dans un processus – baptisé Modélisation participative en 3D – qui aide les communautés locales à documenter les régions dans lesquelles elles vivent, mais également à influencer la façon dont les décisions sont prises concernant l’utilisation et l’occupation des sols.

 «Traditionnellement, les cartes étaient réalisées par les gouvernements, qui contrôlaient également les données», explique Giacomo Rambaldi du CTA. «Mais un énorme changement a eu lieu récemment, à mesure que les groupes de la société civile ont acquis la capacité de réaliser leurs propres cartes et vidéos.» Ils ont bénéficié de l’accès à Google Earth et YouTube ainsi qu’à la modélisation participative en 3D, qui leur ont permis de créer des cartes exactes et géo-référencées.

Le premier exercice de modélisation soutenu par le CTA dans le Pacifique a eu lieu aux Fidji, en 2005. Cet événement de 11 jours à Lavuka s’est concentré sur l’île d’Ovalau, où les communautés locales souffraient d’une surexploitation de leurs zones de pêche, en particulier par des flottes étrangères. Au cours des trois premiers jours, trente étudiants de l’enseignement supérieur et six enseignants ont créé un modèle en 3D de l’île avec l’aide de quinze animateurs et stagiaires. Quatre-vingt-dix hommes et femmes de 26 villages ont ensuite «peuplé » le modèle de montagnes, de routes, de rivières, de zones de pêches, de terres agricoles, de sites culturels et d’autres caractéristiques. Lorsqu’ils ont eu terminé, le modèle comptait 79 caractéristiques et 83 lieux revêtant une importance culturelle.

Le modèle a ensuite servi de base pour un plan de gestion à l’échelle de l’île et trois plans de gestion de districts. Le processus a identifié seize zones «taboues » dans lesquelles une protection complète de la faune marine est à présent assurée. Les autochtones ont également commencé à dégager des parcours cérémonieux qui avaient été envahis par la végétation. En trois années de recherche, le Musée des Fidji n’avait réussi à identifier que vingt lieux revêtant une importance culturelle – soit un quart du nombre de lieux identifiés par les villageois pendant le processus de modélisation.

À bien des égards, le processus est aussi important que le résultat obtenu. «Il aide les gens à visualiser et à localiser leurs connaissances spatiales, ce qui est très motivant », explique Giacomo Rambaldi. « Et, bien sûr, il leur permet de défendre leur cause de façon plus persuasive. » Dans le passé, les communautés autochtones pouvaient produire des croquis cartographiques en faisant valoir des revendications pour leurs terres, mais les décideurs n’en tenaient guère compte. Les modèles en 3D fournissant des détails complexes sur les caractéristiques du paysage sont beaucoup plus difficiles à ignorer.

À travers le Pacifique

Kenn Mondiai, qui dirige l’ONG «Partners with Melanesians », basée en Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, fait partie des qui bénéficiaires d’une formation aux Fidji. Depuis lors, il a joué un rôle important dans la promotion de la modélisation participative en 3D à travers le Pacifique. Avec le soutien de la Banque mondiale, il a aidé les communautés locales du Plateau de Managalas en Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, qui abrite 150 clans, à créer un modèle en 3D de leurs terres ancestrales. Ce modèle a servi comme élément de preuve pour promouvoir la Zone patrimoniale de Managalas (Managalas Conservation Area), dont la reconnaissance officielle est prévue au moment de la mise sous presse.

Mapping Land, Sea and Culture: an Award-winning Participatory 3D Modelling Process in Fiji from CTA on Vimeo.

En 2011, l’organisation de protection de l’environnement The Nature Conservancy a engagé Kenn Mondiai afin de diriger des formations dans les îles Salomon. Les exercices de modélisation dans le village côtier de Boe Boe se sont concentrés sur le changement climatique et ses répercussions possibles. Le modèle présentait l’étendue du dernier tsunami en 2007 et le niveau des récentes marées hautes qui avaient inondé certaines parties du village. La communauté a ensuite utilisé le modèle pour discuter de l’impact potentiel de la hausse du niveau des mers et d’autres événements liés au climat.

« Le modèle a montré à la jeune génération que nous devions réfléchir au changement climatique », a fait remarquer Winifred Piatamama après l’exercice. «Il est important de prendre conscience que, dans quelques années, le niveau de la mer ne sera pas le même qu’aujourd’hui. » Après avoir débattu, les villageois ont décidé qu’au lieu de construire le long de la côte, comme ils l’avaient fait jusqu’à présent, ils se tourneraient vers les terres plus élevées, à l’écart de la mer. En résumé, le modèle les a aidés à concevoir des plans qui les aideront à s’adapter au changement climatique.

Selon Winifred Piatamama, le processus de modélisation a été particulièrement important pour les femmes de la communauté. « Au début, c’était un peu difficile pour les femmes, parce qu’elles n’expriment pas leurs préoccupations, elles sont généralement silencieuses », a-t-elle déclaré. Toutefois, le processus de modélisation les a encouragées à faire part de leurs points de vue plus ouvertement. « Lorsque tous contribuent au modèle, ils partagent fierté et propriété », explique Gabriel Kulwaum, de l’organisation TNC (The Nature Conservancy) dans un petit film sur l’exercice de Boe Boe. « Ce n’est pas TNC ou le gouvernement qui en a la propriété. » C’est la communauté.

Formation aux Caraïbes

Le CTA était très désireux d’encourager une modélisation participative en 3D dans les Caraïbes, mais était obligé d’importer l’expertise d’ailleurs. En octobre 2012, le premier exercice de modélisation a eu lieu à Tobago, sous l’égide de l’Institut des ressources naturelles des Caraïbes (Caribbean Natural Resources Institute, Canari) et animé par Kenn Mondiai. Cela a donné lieu à des ateliers de suivi de modélisation sur l’île de l’Union et à la Grenade.

Sous La Surface ~ Cartographie de l'île d'Union ~ un exercice MP3D en 2013 from CTA on Vimeo.

Local voices in climate change adaptation - Union Island, Caribbean - Trailer from CTA on Vimeo.

Pour Gillian Stanislaus, du ministère des Ressources naturelles et de l’environnement de Trinidad-et-Tobago, le modèle en 3D de Tobago aidera les autorités à gérer plus efficacement les futurs développements. « Grâce au processus de modélisation, nous avons une connaissance bien plus approfondie de la façon dont les terres sont utilisées et de leur importance pour les habitants », affirme-t-elle.

Terrence Phillips a participé à l’un des ateliers de modélisation – qui portait sur l’adaptation au changement climatique – en tant que représentant du Mécanisme régional des pêches des Caraïbes. Il a été impressionné. « Je pense qu’il s’agit d’un outil très utile », confie-t-il. « Les communautés étaient en mesure de décrire ce qui était arrivé à leurs ressources maritimes dans le passé et l’état des ressources à l’heure actuelle. » La modélisation les a encouragées à prendre en considération l’impact éventuel de la hausse du niveau des mers et du changement climatique et à concevoir des stratégies d’adaptation. L’exercice de modélisation a contribué à l’instauration d’un dialogue constructif entre le gouvernement et la communauté locale, garantissant leur collaboration efficace à l’avenir.

La première en Afrique

L’organisation du premier exercice participatif de cartographie en 3D en Afrique a pris 10 mois. Cet exercice, qui s’est tenu dans le village de Nessuit, dans le comté de Nakuru au Kenya, était géré par Systèmes de cartographie et d’information en recherche environnementale en Afrique (Environmental Research Mapping and Information Systems in Africa, ERMIS-Africa), avec le soutien financier et technique du CTA. Pendant 11 jours, en août 2006, quelque 120 hommes et femmes appartenant à 21 clans Ogiek ont construit un modèle en 3D du complexe oriental de la forêt de Mau.

The Voice of the Ogiek from CTA on Vimeo.

La forêt de Mau a souffert pendant des décennies de l’exploitation commerciale et de l’envahissement par des cultures. Ces activités ont détruit une grande partie du paysage ainsi que bon nombre de sites culturels ogiek et, pendant quelques années, les Ogiek ont tenté de faire valoir en justice leurs droits sur ces terres. « Les procédures juridiques traînaient en longueur, sans aucune solution véritable », déplore Julius Muchemi, directeur d’ERMIS-Africa. « Ce dont les Ogiek avaient besoin, c’était de preuves concrètes venant soutenir leurs revendications ; et l’exercice de modélisation les a aidés à fournir ces preuves. »

Les preuves ont été suffisamment persuasives pour convaincre le gouvernement du droit des Ogiek sur les terres et de la nécessité de protéger la région de nouvelles dégradations. Lorsqu’un processus de préservation a été lancé en 2007, tous ceux qui occupaient la forêt en dehors des Ogiek ont été expulsés. Depuis lors, ERMIS-Africa et ses partenaires ont produit l’Atlas des territoires ancestraux des peuples Ogiek (Ogiek Peoples Ancestral Territories Atlas). Cet atlas présente la description la plus détaillée à ce jour de la culture Ogiek et de leurs liens avec la terre.

Parmi les organisations qui ont soutenu l’exercice de cartographie, citons le Comité de coordination des peuples autochtones d’Afrique (Indigenous Peoples of Africa Coordinating Committee, Ipac). Selon son directeur, Nigel Crawhall, il s’agit d’un événement majeur dans la vie de l’IPacC. L’exercice de cartographie et le soutien apporté par le CTA à l’organisation ont mené à une série de développements importants pour le peuple autochtone, et notamment à l’engagement de l’IPacC à la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques et le lancement d’un programme de formation multinational sur l’atténuation et l’adaptation au changement climatique.

Dans une synthèse écrite concernant l’impact du CTA, le Dr Crawhall a expliqué : « D’un point de vue professionnel, les relations avec le CTA ont apporté d’importants changements, de nouveaux outils et opportunités [...] L’exposition et le partenariat avec le CTA ont transformé le travail, les pratiques et les connaissances du seul réseau régional des peuples autochtones d’Afrique, exercé une incidence sur la vie des personnes dans plus d’une douzaine de pays et créé de nouvelles opportunités de carrière et de sensibilisation pour les leaders autochtones et m’ont ouvert de nouveaux horizons sur le plan professionnel. »

Depuis l’exercice de cartographie de la forêt de Mau, le CTA a soutenu des initiatives similaires en Éthiopie, au Gabon, au Tchad et en Ouganda. Soutenus par un manuel électronique publié en anglais, en français, en espagnol, en portugais et en amharique, ainsi que par une communauté en ligne dynamique, des exercices de modélisation ont également eu lieu dans d’autres parties du Kenya, au Ghana, au Maroc et en République démocratique du Congo et de nombreux autres pays, comme indiqué sur la carte ci-dessous.

Modelling a brighter future

People with low levels of education and poor literacy skills have difficulty making themselves heard. This is particularly true for indigenous communities. Their ancestral knowledge and rights are often ignored by governments, mineral companies and others who wish to exploit their lands. However, it needn’t be like this. Working with local partners, CTA has helped to pioneer a process, known as Participatory 3-D Modelling, which is helping local communities not only to document the areas where they live, but influence the way decisions are made about land-use and tenure.

“Traditionally, maps were made by governments, and the data was controlled by governments,” says CTA’s Giacomo Rambaldi. “But there has been a huge change recently as civil society groups have acquired the ability to make their own maps and videos.” They have benefited from access to Google Earth and YouTube and participatory 3-D modelling as a way of creating accurate, geo-referenced maps.

The first CTA-supported modelling exercise in the Pacific was held in Fiji in 2005. The 11-day event in Lavuka focused on Ovalau Island, where local communities were suffering from the over-exploitation of their fishery grounds, especially by foreign fleets. During the first three days, 30 high-school students and six teachers constructed a 3-D model of the island with the assistance of 15 facilitators and trainees. Ninety men and women from 26 villages then ‘populated’ the model with mountains, roads, rivers, fishing grounds, croplands, cultural sites and other features. By the time they had finished, the model had 79 features and 83 places of cultural significance.

The model was subsequently used as a basis for an island-wide management plan and three districts management plans. The process identified 16 ‘taboo’ areas in which there is now total protection of marine life. Local people have also begun to clear ceremonial pathways which had become overgrown. During the course of three years of research, the Museum of Fiji only managed to identified 20 places of cultural significance – a quarter of the number identified by villagers during the modelling process.

In many ways, the process is as important as the finished article. “It helps people to visualise and localise their spatial knowledge, and this is very empowering,” says Giacomo. “And, of course, it enables them to make their case more persuasively.” In the past, indigenous communities might produce sketch maps laying claims to their land, but decisions-makers seldom took much notice. The 3-D models providing intricate details of landscape features and resource use are much harder to ignore.

Across the Pacific

Kenn Mondiai, who runs Partners with Melanesians, an NGO based in Papua New Guinea, was among those to benefit from training in Fiji. Since then he has played an important role in promoting participatory 3-D modelling across the Pacific. With support from the World Bank, he helped local communities on PNG’s Managalas Plateau, home to around 150 clans, to create a 3-D model of their ancestral lands. This was used as part of the evidence to promote Managalas Conservation Area, whose official recognition is anticipated around the time of going to press.

Mapping Land, Sea and Culture: an Award-winning Participatory 3D Modelling Process in Fiji from CTA on Vimeo.

In 2011, The Nature Conservancy hired Kenn to conduct trainings in the Solomon Islands. The modelling exercise at the coastal village of Boe Boe focused on climate change and its possible impact. The model showed the extent of the last tsunami in 2007 and recent king-tide levels that had inundated parts of the village. The community then used the model to discuss the potential impact of rises in sea-level and other climate-related events.

“The model showed the younger generation that we need to think about climate change,” reflected Winifred Piatamama after the exercise. “It’s important to realise that in a few years time the sea level won’t be the same as it is now.” Following discussions, the villagers decided that instead of building along the coastline, as they have done in the past, they would look towards the higher land further from the sea. In short, the model helped them to devise plans which will help them adapt to climate change.

Modelling the Future in Boe Boe Community, Solomon Islands from CTA on Vimeo.

According to Winifred, the modelling process was particularly important for the women in the community. “At the beginning it was a bit challenging for women, because they don’t raise their concerns, they are generally quiet,” she said. However, the modelling process encouraged them to share their views more openly. “When everyone contributes to the model, they share pride and ownership,” reflected Gabriel Kulwaum of The Nature Conservancy (TNC) in a short film about the Boe Boe exercise. “TNC or the government don’t own it.” The community does.

Training in the Caribbean

CTA was keen to encourage participatory 3-D modelling in the Caribbean, but was obliged to import expertise from elsewhere. In October 2012, the first Caribbean modelling exercise was held in Tobago, hosted by the Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI) and facilitated by Kenn Mondiai. This led to follow-up modelling workshops on Union Island and Granada.

Local voices in climate change adaptation - Union Island, Caribbean - Trailer from CTA on Vimeo.

According to Gillian Stanislaus of the Department of Natural Resources and Environment in Trinidad and Tobago, the Tobago 3-D model will help the authorities manage future developments more efficiently. “Because of the modelling process, we have a much greater depth of knowledge about the way in which the land is used and its significance for local people,” she says.

Terrence Phillips attended one of the modelling workshops – its focus was on adapting to climate change – as a representative of the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism. He was impressed. “I think this is a very useful tool,” he says. “The communities were able to describe what had happened to their marine resources in the past and the state of the resources now.” The modelling encouraged them to consider the possible impact of sea-level rises and climate change, and devise strategies to help them adapt. The modelling exercise helped to create a constructive dialogue between the government and the local community, ensuring that they work together effectively in future.

Africa's first

Africa’s first participatory 3-D mapping exercise took some 10 months to organise. Held in the village of Nessuit in Kenya’s Nakuru County, it was managed by Environmental Research Mapping and Information Systems in Africa (ERMIS-Africa), with financial and technical support from CTA. Over the course of 11 days in August 2006, some 120 men and women belonging to 21 Ogiek clans constructed a 3-D model of the Eastern Mau Forest Complex.

The Voice of the Ogiek from CTA on Vimeo.

The Mau Forest had suffered from decades of commercial logging and encroachment. These activities had destroyed much of the landscape, as well as many Ogiek cultural sites, and for some years the Ogiek had been attempting to assert their rights to the land in court. “The court cases had been dragging on, with no real resolution,” explains Julius Muchemi, director of ERMIS-Africa. “What the Ogiek needed was concrete evidence to support their claims, and the modelling exercise helped to provide that.”

The evidence was persuasive enough to convince the government of the Ogiek’s right to the land, and the need to protect the area from further degradation. When a conservation process was launched in 2007, all those occupying the forest apart from the Ogiek were evicted. Since then, ERMIS-Africa and its partners have produced the Ogiek Peoples Ancestral Territories Atlas. This provides the most comprehensive description to date about the Ogiek’s culture and their links to the land.

Among the organisations which supported the mapping exercise was the Indigenous Peoples of Africa Coordinating Committee (IPACC). According to its director, Nigel Crawhall, this was a key event in the life of IPACC. The mapping exercise, and CTA’s support for the organisation, led to a series of important developments for indigenous people, including IPACC’s engagement with the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the launching of a multi-country training programme on climate change mitigation and adaptation.

“From a professional perspective,” said Dr Crawhall, in a written summary about the impact of CTA, “the relationship with CTA has brought important changes, new tools and opportunities... Exposure and partnering with CTA has transformed the work, practice and knowledge of Africa’s only regional indigenous peoples network, it has touched the lives of people in more than a dozen countries, it has created new career and advocacy opportunities for indigenous leaders, and it has opened new horizons for me professionally.”

Since the Mau Forest mapping exercise, CTA has supported similar initiatives in Ethiopia, Gabon, Chad and Uganda. Supported by an e-handbook published in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Amharic, and a vibrant online community, modelling exercises have also taken place in other parts of Kenya, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Morocco and many other countries as shown on the map below.

Monday, September 03, 2018

Joyful visualisation of urban P3DM by the Philippine Disaster Resilience Foundation

One of the key components of Philippine Disaster Resilience Foundation (PDRF)’s Community Resilience Program is the Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (#P3DM). In partnership with the Philippine Geographical Society, it is a multi-sectoral & community mapping activity. 

Saturday, September 01, 2018

Urban Participatory 3D Model of Barangay, Quezon City, Philippines

Urban Participatory 3D Model (P3DM) of the Barangay Bagubayan, Quezon City, Philippines done on 23-24 July 2018 assembled by local communities in the context of the USAID-funded project "Strengthening Public-Private Partnership on Disaster Risk reduction to Build Resilient Communities". Facilitation support provided by the the Philippine Geographical Society.

Participatory 3D modelling for disaster risk reduction in the Philippines

Participatory 3D Model (P3DM) of the  Municipality of Paracale in Camarines Note in the Philippines produced by local communities with support provided by the Center for Disaster Preparedness Foundation (CDP) and the Philippine Geographical Society in the framework of a UNICEF funded project.

Friday, August 17, 2018

The Iwokrama International Centre recently released this video recording of the participatory three dimensional mapping (P3DM) exercises conducted by the village of Fair View in the Iwokrama Forest in Guyana. The three dimensional map of Fair View builds on inputs from the residents and Iwokrama, and was refined through the knowledge of the elders. The 3D model represents all the important features of Fair View which covers 22,000 sq km, including the residential, protection, harvesting, wells and other areas. Iwokrama is grateful to the Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation (CTA) and Tropenbos International Suriname (TBI Suriname) for their technical advice and assistance, and to Esso Exploration and Production Guyana Limited (EEPGL) for financial support.

Sunday, June 04, 2017

UAS or drone mapping versus conventional methods - cost and benefit analysis - two cases in Africa

The use of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) in aerial mapping applications is increasingly being used as an appropriate surveying method in many sectors, particularly for agriculture.
Since the use of sUAS is new to many agricultural sector players, it is useful to reflect on the costs and benefits, and related technical and operational challenges, as well as the advantages that present themselves in the practical implementation of this technology.

Download full publication: http://bit.ly/2rFD26M

Author(s): Volkmann, Walter
Published: 2017
Series: CTA Working Paper
Publisher(s): CTA www.cta.int
Type: Technical publication 

Thursday, May 25, 2017

UNICEF support to the deployment of P3DM practice in the Philippines

Through the efforts of the Philippine Geographical Society (PGS), UNICEF Philippines and its partner NGOs across the country (A2D in Cebu, CDRC in Northern Samar, and TABI in Masbate), 12 barangays were able to make their own Participatory 3D Maps (P3DMs) from January to April in 2016.

Participatory 3D Modelling for disaster risk reduction in DRC

"River partners: Managing environment and disaster risk in the Democratic Republic of the Congo" is a video report on the disaster risk reduction project funded by the EU and implemented by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Government of DRC and local communities, with the support of the European Union.

Flooding and soil erosion are major hazards that threaten the Lukaya River basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Located in the outskirts of Kinshasa, this basin is an important source of water supply for the capital. This pilot project will demonstrate how ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (eco-DRR) can be integrated into watershed development planning. Upstream and downstream river users are brought together to tackle disaster risk and development planning in a more integrated manner.

Participatory 3D Modelling (P3DM) has been the core activity which ensured the active participation of local stakeholders.

Saturday, April 29, 2017

How participatory maps can inform national policy making: The Tampakan Copper-Gold mine case

On September 23, 2011, Sagittarius Mines, Inc., a joint venture between global giant Glencore, Australia's Indophil Resources, and Filipino firm Tampakan Group of Companies, organised a public consultation in Koronadal City, South Cotabato, Philippines, to present the results of a series of feasibility studies including the results of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and inherent “safety, merits and sustainability” of the planned US$5.8-billion Tampakan Copper-Gold mining Project.

The final overall mine area was estimated at around 10,000 ha located within the boundaries of four provinces, namely South Cotabato, Sarangani, Davao del Sur and Sultan Kudarat, mostly forested and including a substantial portion in the Indigenous peoples’ ancestral domains. The open pit of 500 has would have been dug to a depth of 785 meters while the topsoil stockpile and pit ore stockpile would have covered areas of 5 ha and 49 ha, respectively. The company’s EIA estimated that 5,000 people, mostly of indigenous origin, were to be directly affected, and would have required re-settlement. The mining project would have had direct impact on five watersheds, around 4,000 hectares of old-growth forest and five indigenous peoples’ ancestral domains.

Consultants and executives of the company shared the finding of their studies using figures, charts and images all presenting the “expected benefits” of the proposed mining project, the largest of its kind in the Philippines and among the largest copper mines in the world to a an estimated 10,000 people crammed in the Koronadal City plaza.

At the other end of the spectrum, the Philippine Association for Intercultural Development (PAFID), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) supporting the cause of Indigenous Peoples and local minorities, prepared a geo-referenced and scaled relief map of the area, to translate the technical and complex information available on the reports produced by the company via a visual and tactile interface. Building on the data provided by the mining company itself (e.g., potential stockpiles of mine tailings and wastes), the physical 3D visualisation of the mining complex - once unveiled - would have shown a different, less rosy scenario.  In the early morning before the start of the public consultation, the 3D map was sneaked into the plaza covered with a cloth.

The company’s experts - who included British, Australian and Filipino mining executives, were the first to present the results of the feasibility studies, environmental impact assessments and more, under the flashlight of local and national media, radio and TV operators.

When given the floor to react to the presentations, PAFID representative, Ms Kail Zingapan, unveiled the Participatory 3D model (P3DM) to the surprise of the mining executives, the large audience crowding the plaza and the local media.

Benefiting from the same media coverage as the mining executives, Ms Zingapan illustrated the actual and future scenarios of the Koronadal Valley and the Tampakan watersheds, where the mining operations would have taken place.

“This is the people’s map. We did not invent this,” she told the audience after unveiling the relief model. “Residents of the area showed us where their lands are located and we just plotted them on the 3D map,” Zingapan said. “We showed them the potential impact of the mining activities on the landscape and they saw that the mine development area would have included their ancestral lands. It appears that not all of them were consulted or correctly informed about the impact of the operations and the risks involved.”

According to local accounts, the audience was struck as Mr Zingapan further elaborated using the 3D map as a visual reference. She pinpointed that the company planned to build its tailings dam on an area, which is considered as sacred by the indigenous peoples. The location is also the headwater of the Mal River, which is the source of fish, of fresh water for home use and for irrigating crops. “This is your land where you live and get your food and other daily needs. It is up to you now if you want to see this land wasted and taken away from you or not,” she told the people in their local language. Her spoken words and image were amplified and accessible to the entire audience via the sophisticated multimedia system installed by the mining company for the occasion.

The visualisation of the pre and post scenarios offered by the 3D map were graphic, easy to understand and powerful, and underpinned public arguments contesting the company’s plans to mine copper and gold through the open-pit method.

The consultation ended, South Cotabato Governor Arthur Pingoy declared that he was duty-bound to implement the Province’s 2010 environment code, which bans open-pit mining. The mining company contested the “constitutionality” of the Province’s environment code and insisted that open-pit mining is the “safest method.” In 2014 the case, presented by the Europe-Third World Center (CETIM), was debated 26th session of the UN Human Rights Council.

In 2016, Philippine Environment Secretary Regina Lopez stated that “There will be no Tampakan mine operations under my term.” “I will never ever allow this because it’s immoral. It’s socially unjust to allow companies to put the lives of all the farmers and indigenous people at risk,” Secretary Lopez said.

On 27 April 2017, Secretary Lopez further stated that she will ban open-pit mining in the country, toughening a months-long crackdown on the sector she blames for extensive environmental damage. Among others, the ban would halt the $5.9 billion (£4.59 billion) Tampakan copper-gold project, the nation's biggest stalled mining venture. Tampakan failed to take off after the province where it is located banned open-pit mining in 2010, prompting commodities giant Glencore Plc to quit the project in 2015.

In interfacing with the press, Secretary Lopez used the same P3DM used in 2011 by Ms Zingapan to astound the audience in Koronadal City, and kick-start a process with is likely to lead to fundamental changes in the policy governing open pit mining in the Philippines.


  • Jee Y. Geronimo. 2017. DENR bans 'prospective' open-pit mines. https://goo.gl/HGX9xu 
  • Reuters. 2017. Philippines bans open-pit mining as minister toughens crackdown. https://goo.gl/A55pm9. Thu Apr 27, 2017
  • Louise Maureen Simeon. 2016. DENR thumbs down Tampakan mine project.  The Philippine Star. Updated July 28, 2016. https://goo.gl/I41U88
  • ________2016. Philippines: Details of the Tampakan project challenged. https://goo.gl/w9Tyln
  • CETIM. 2014. The Tampakan Copper-Gold Project and Human Rights Violations in the South Cotabato, Philippines, https://goo.gl/aYuWEZ presented at the 26th session of the UN Human Rights Council, 2014
  • Tebtebba via the Rights and Resources Initiative. 2012. Community maps can empower indigenous peoples to assert land rights https://goo.gl/JhNyHx



Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Participatory 3D Modelling in Western Samoa triggers behavioural changes and climate change resilience

Since 2012 the local government together with local communities in Western Samoa have carried out a total of 19 participatory 3D modelling (P3DM) exercises in the context of agroforestry management, water management and tourism development.

A participatory research was conducted between February and April 2016 to explore the effectiveness and potential of P3DM in the region. The study was done by Barbara Dovarch, PhD candidate at the Department of Architecture Design and Urban Planning, University of Sassari, Italy, sociologist and independent researcher, in partnership with the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) and Samoa’s Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE).

This participatory impact evaluation involved diverse members of local communities and MNRE technical staff. It focused particularly on the capacity of P3DM to generate deep-seated and long-lasting behavioural changes.

The results of the study demonstrates that P3DM contributes to natural resource management and climate change resilience and showed the transformative power of the process at various levels, such as community, NGO and governmental level.

Through the P3DM process, meaningful interactions between government representatives and community members resulted in greater collaboration and mutual learning. While government representatives have changed the way they approach local communities – from ‘teaching’ to ‘listening’ – communities have also changed their attitude towards land management and development.

Download the full report via: http://bit.ly/p3dm-ws

Monday, April 10, 2017

Participatory 3D modelling as a socially engaging approach in ecosystem service assessments among marginalized communities

Land use decision making in the Suriname Upper Suriname River area knows a history of dis-
empowerment and marginalization of the Saamaka communities inhabiting the area. Non-recognition of land rights is at the origin of this problem. This is aggravated by the increasing over-exploitation of timber resources by powerful stakeholders and the unfair distribution of timber benefits. This has left Saamakans marginalized, causing distrust and opposition among themselves and towards outsiders. Furthermore, as a result of deforestation, Saamakans face detrimental changes in the ecosystem services (ES) that support their traditional livelihoods, with important effects for their well-being.

This environment of distrust, opposition and marginalization makes it difficult to assess these concerns. Hence, an ES assessment approach that would generate salient ES knowledge while generating trust, communication among stakeholders and local capacity building was needed. In this paper we evaluate whether Participatory 3D modelling (P3DM) is an effective approach for ecosystem services assessments in such disabling environments. We evaluate this by using empirical data from an ES assessment in the Saamaka region using a P3DM approach. Results show the efficient identification and evaluation of 36 ES representing provisioning, cultural and regulating service categories with crops, fish, wild meat, timber and forest medicines identified as most important.

The authors of this paper found a decrease in the demand and supply of crops, fish and wild meat associated with ecosystem degradation, out-migration and changes in lifestyles. Further, the findings of the research show an increasing demand and decreasing supply for timber related to over-exploitation. The research provided evidence of the usefulness of P3DM to foster multi-functional landscape development among a range of communities.

In the paper the authors discuss the usefulness of the approach and the conditions needed for the P3DM process to address the needs of the local communities as well as the need for a broader P3DM implementation strategy beyond the engagement, screening, and diagnostic phases of ES assessments when the aim is to enhance ES outcomes for marginalized communities.

Download PDF version of the paper

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Saturday, March 25, 2017

La MP3D, un outil puissant pour le développement des associations au Madagascar

Interview avec Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona, Secrétaire Général du BIMTT à Madagascar -  par Andriatiana Mamy

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona, Secrétaire Général du BIMTT ou Bureau de Liaison des Institutions de Formation en milieu Rural à Madagascar, n’a pas hésité un instant à adopter la maquette participative, faisant figure selon lui d’un puissant outil à clé multiple pour le développement de son Association après avoir assisté à l’exercice de modélisation participative en 3D (MP3D) mené par une équipe de CTA à Madagascar.

Vous n'avez pas hésité à approprier la maquette, c'est quoi au juste selon vous un outil à clé multiple ?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona : Effectivement, nous n'avons pas hésité à l'adopter le processus. Au départ, ce n'était qu'une simple curiosité, que c'était nouveau et que notre organisation ait entretenu avec le CTA une collaboration de longue date. Mais l'appétit venait en mangeant. En 2015, j'ai participé avec mon équipe à la formation octroyée par le FTA (Farmer Technology Agriculture), une organisation appuyée par le CTA. Un apprentissage sur le processus de la modélisation de la carte 3D à l'occasion de la fabrication d'une maquette villageoise. Au premier abord, la scène m'a fasciné : l'ambiance de travail, mais surtout l'implication des participants. Chacun joue un rôle spécifique : les enfants et les jeunes s'occupent du découpage des cartons, les adultes du tracé et de l'affichage des données factuelles, les anciens du mémoire historique du village. Tout le monde est uni, unifié autour de la carte, dirigé ensemble vers un même objectif : celui de restituer l'histoire, construire et inventorier les détails du village. Une complicité se dessine entre participants : enfant-adulte, technicien-pratiquant, communauté-autorité, contemporain-traditionnel. Du coup, j'avais une assurance au fond de moi que les exercices de modélisation 3D apporteraient à notre association, dont notre premier souci serait d'assurer la synergie des actions et de développer la collaboration entre les membres et le monde extérieur, tout en renforçant la capacité technique et pédagogique de chacun. C'est un outil performant qui sûrement va faciliter notre tâche. Ce n'est pas la maquette en elle qui est la plus importante. C'est l'effet qu'elle déclenche, qu'elle crée, qu'elle entretient : la convivialité, l'élargissement des valeurs et perspectives individuelles, la confirmation de l'identité de la communauté, la découverte partagée de pistes de projet, les décisions...La modélisation 3D est un processus de collecte d'informations, d'analyse de situation, de plaidoyers, de sensibilisation, d'exploration, de capitalisation, de prise de décision, de gestion de terroir, de suivi...Bref : un outil à clé multiple.

Quelle est la mission de votre organisation ?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona : Le BIMTT est une association regroupant plus de 90 organisations rattachées à la Confédération des Eglises de Madagascar (FFKM). Ces organisations peuvent être des institutions de recherche, de développement, des ONGs, des départements techniques agricoles étatiques ou privés, des groupements de paysans. Sa principale mission est d'organiser des échanges et développer les capacités internes à se relier entre ses membres et à se relier avec les autres institutions, de renforcer les capacités techniques et pédagogiques de ses membres pour que ces derniers puissent travailler convenablement dans cette nouvelle perspective sur le terrain afin de favoriser les initiatives et les innovations. On peut dire que BIMTT est un grand réseau présent dans tout le territoire de la Grande île. Il faut noter l'affluence de la Communauté chrétienne pour le développement à Madagascar. Selon la statistique, 70% des centres de formations rurales à Madagascar sont rattachés à l'église. Par ailleurs, ces organisations membres collaborent avec tout paysan sans distinction. Comment les activités s'articulent et se complètent ? Comment organiser les interventions pour que les activités ne se piétinent et que les organisations ne se marchent pas sur les pieds : une question de synergie ! Comment consolider les membres, les rendant autonomes sur le plan organisationnel et économique, les aider à conquérir le marché local puis international ! C'est tout un appui managérial ! Chaque organisme membre a son propre projet et ses propres activités, BIMTT est là pour les accompagner, renforcer leurs capacités, leur collaboration interne et externe.

Qu'est ce que la MP3D peut apporter à votre réseau ? En quoi, renforce-t-elle la synergie de vos activités ?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona : Une des faiblesses actuelles de notre réseau réside dans le fait que les membres travaillent d'une manière isolée, chacun dans son petit coin. Pourtant, les efforts peuvent se conjuguer pour mieux produire tant en qualité qu'en quantité. Vous savez, Madagascar est connu pour être un pays d'échantillon : bon pour quelques exemplaires mais forfait pour des grosses commandes ! Les artisans sculpteurs en sont victimes. Dans d'autres communautés, les projets se bousculent pour une même activité dans un même endroit alors que d'autres à côté sont abandonnées. Nos techniciens craignent d'une résistance des paysans au changement, surtout quand ces intervenants se contredisent ! Là, il y a un appel criant à une coordination, une synergie des activités. Il faut que les acteurs s'échangent les idées. Autour d'une carte 3D, cela est possible. Un début de concertation est maintenant lancé à Ampefy entre acteurs, paysans et autorités en vue de la protection du deuxième plus grand lac de Madagascar l'Itasy, gravement menacé par la dégradation de l'environnement. Par ailleurs, il faut également avouer que certains de nos membres sont frêles et ne disposent d'aucun projet de développement, faute de moyens, d'enthousiasme, d'informations. Les cartes 3D y donnent de réponses. Je me souviens du problème récurent d'eau potable dans le village d'Andranomafana Betafo Antsirabe. C'est au moment de l'exercice de MP3D que surgit la possibilité d'exploitation d'une fontaine, bien placée pour alimenter le village entier. Depuis lors, le débat est lancé, l'enthousiasme est réveillé, les individus sont impliqués. Actuellement, une de nos principales activités est l'appui à l'élaboration des Schémas d'Aménagement Communal (SAC) ou des Plans de Développement Villageois (PAV) des Communautés où nos membres sont actifs. La plupart de nos membres y prennent part et sont très consultés. Ces plans sont indiscutablement un instrument capital pour le développement des communautés, pour espérer recevoir des aides et de financements. Pour y parvenir, nous voulions une communauté responsable, prenant en main leur propre avenir, engagée, informée...Dans cette perspective les maquettes y jouent un rôle prépondérant. Nos techniciens sont familiers aux cartographies participatives 2D, faisant appel aux croquis sur des emballages, mais à comparer avec la maquette, force est de constater que cette dernière a un énorme avantage : précis, concret, accessible à tous ; illettrés ou non, facile à comprendre, participatif, dynamique, et à moindre coût par rapport aux frais des enquêtes nécessaires à la confection des SAC. En effet, la carte 3D s'avère l'outil efficace pour la conception de ces plans de développement communal : l'implication des acteurs villageois est acquise, les échanges et discussions développés, les informations rassemblées, l'histoire du village restituée, les préventions formulées, les grandes orientations et même décisions dessinées. Puis, au cours du temps, les données sont mises à jour, tout un chacun se donne la main pour afficher les nouvelles informations sur la maquette. Bref : un travail rapide, participatif à un prix abordable. Que demande le peuple !

Depuis lors, comment le réseau a-t-il approprié la MP3D ?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona : Après la formation dispensée par le FTA, soutenu par le CTA, les membres du Conseil d'administration du BIMTT sont unanimes à l'idée de vulgariser cet outil auprès des différents membres du réseau. Du coup, nous avons produit un film documentaire sur l'exercice du processus MP3D. Le film a été diffusé sur la chaîne nationale et est disponible sur DVD, distribué à tous les membres. Un engouement pour cet outil est actuellement ressenti, mais nous devons attendre les prochaines années d'exercice avant d'enclencher la mise à l'échelle du processus à l'endroit de tous les membres et de disposer d'un budget y afférent. Pour commencer, BIMTT a fait le choix de cinq localités pilotes pour la production de maquettes. Trois maquettes de villages pour Atalata Vaovao, Mahiatrondro et Ampanasanatongotra au Moyen Ouest dans la région d'Itasy. Une maquette de la Commune d'Andranomafana sur les Hautes terres centrales, à Betafo et une autre dans le village des pêcheurs Sahoragna du littoral Est de la Province de Toamasina.

Quels financements avez-vous prévu pour ces productions ?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona : Outre les appuis pédagogiques et documentaires du CTA, BIMTT n'a reçu aucun financement dans la production de ces maquettes. D'ailleurs, BIMTT n'est pas censé financer la fabrication de maquette. Cela revient à chaque institution membre, selon leurs intérêts. Mais comme j'avais mentionné, l'intérêt des membres est là. Il leur reste le fonds, que j'espère figurer dans leur prochain budget d'investissement. Mais conformément à la mission du BIMTT, qui est celle d'accompagner leurs membres, il lui revient d'aider les institutions membres à trouver les partenaires financiers pour la production de maquette. Pour l'heure, nous essayons de trouver les moyens d'alléger le coût global de construction d'une maquette. En effet, nous avions limité à deux jours le temps de fabrication d'une cartographie 3D (plus les préparatifs), sans pour autant compromettre l'esprit participatif du processus. Par ailleurs, grâce à nos plaidoyers auprès du CTA, nos techniciens ont bénéficié d'une formation sur le logiciel ARCGIS, en vue de produire eux-mêmes des cartes de courbe de niveau, nécessaire dans la fabrication de la maquette. Cette initiative est d'une grande importance dans la mesure où le prix de cette carte coûte presque la moitié du budget global nécessaire à la fabrication d'une maquette : tout frais compris, le coût d'une maquette s'élève à 1,4 millions d'ariary (650 euros), tandis que la carte de courbe de niveau se vend à 800.000 ar (250 euros) au Centre Nationale de la Cartographie (FTM).

Mamy Andriatiana : Quelles sont vos perspectives ?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona : Dans les deux prochaines années, nous comptons former au moins un technicien pour chacune des 91 institutions membres. Dans cette perspective, nous estimons au moins 200 techniciens formés, soit également 200 maquettes fabriquées. L'idée est de lancer la formation des formateurs, chaque participant aura à former par la suite leurs collaborateurs respectifs. Une formation sur le tas, la fabrication de la maquette avec tout son esprit fera l'objet de l'apprentissage. A termes, l'exercice du processus de la modélisation 3D de tout le réseau devrait déboucher sur l'élaboration du SAC ou du PAV au niveau du village des membres engagés. Equipées d'un plan de développement, ces communautés auront à leur portée le développement grâce à la cartographie 3D.

La synergie fait la force : Regrouper les communautés pour mieux les appuyer

Afin de mieux appuyer les paysans malgaches, le regroupement des villageois, des communautés, des associations, des Communes est sollicité conformément aux instructions des partenaires financiers, mais aussi des départements techniques ministériels. En 2014, en vue de promouvoir le développement rural à Madagascar, le Gouvernement a misé sur une politique orientée vers l'économie de marché. Dans cette perspective, diverses dispositions ont été adoptées afin d'améliorer la qualité et la quantité des productions dont notamment, la mise en association des villageois. Plus le regroupement est important mieux ce sera : les groupements en association, les associations en fédération, les fédérations en plateforme et les Communes en intercommunaux. Le regroupement des communautés facilite la coordination des activités et renforce la synergie des actions. Cela constitue une assurance aux partenaires et aux dirigeants du pays en termes de sécurité, d'efficience des projets et des affaires. Aussi, l'organisation des sessions de formation, l'octroi de crédit, le financement, le remboursement, le transfert de compétence, le suivi des activités sont-ils assouplis et harmonieux. Pour les associations de grande envergure, les organismes d'appui se mettent ensemble pour mieux les appuyer. Dans la Région d'Itasy, au Moyen Ouest, La Coopération Suisse par le biais du programme SAHA et la coopération Américaine USAID ont cofinancé la mise en place de l'intercommunalité. Trois Communes se sont groupées en une association dénommée 3A Miroso : la Commune d'Ampefy, d'Analavory et d'Anosibe Ifanja. Une centaine de regroupement d'associations sont répertoriées dans cette Région. A savoir le groupement d'associations villageoises accompagnés par la Direction Régionale de Développement Rural, la FAFAFI de la congrégation luthérienne, le SAF Fjkm de l'église protestante, l'ADDM de l'Eglise Catholique Romaine, le BIMTT... Dans cette perspective, le processus de la maquette joue un rôle à double tranchants : celui d'encourager la solidarité de la communauté mais aussi celle des organismes d'appui, pour une bonne synergie des actions.

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Participatory 3D Modelling, a powerful development tool for Madagascan associations

Interview with Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona, Secretary General of the liaison office for Rural Training Institutions -  by Andriatiana Mamy

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona, Secretary General of the Liaison Office for Rural Training Institutions in Madagascar (BIMTT), is an enthusiastic supporter of participatory 3-D models. Having attended the participatory 3-D modelling exercise led by a CTA team in Madagascar, he argues that this is a powerful multi-purpose tool that will be invaluable for the development of his association.

You've been very keen to adopt 3-D modelling. Why do you describe it as a multi-purpose tool?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona: Absolutely. Initially we were just curious because it was something new, but we've been very quick to adopt the process. Our organisation has a longstanding collaboration with CTA, and in 2015 my team and I attended training on participatory 3-D mapping delivered by Farmer Technology Agriculture (FTA), an organisation supported by CTA. We followed the process of making a village model. I was fascinated by the whole setup, the work atmosphere and especially the way that people got involved in different aspects of the process. Everyone had a specific role: children and young people cut up cardboard boxes, adults did the plotting and added factual data, and older people shared their memories about the history of the village. Everyone worked together around the map, united by the same objective of reconstituting the history and showing detailed information about the village. You could see how it pulled everyone together: young and old, technicians and practitioners, members of the community and officials from modern and traditional authorities. I suddenly realised how 3-D modelling exercises could help our association, as our main concern is to promote synergy between actions and develop collaboration between members and the outside world, while strengthening everyone's technical and pedagogical capacities. This is a fantastic tool that's going to make our work so much easier. The most important thing is not the model itself, but the effect it has, the way it creates a convivial atmosphere, broadens individual values and viewpoints, confirms the identity of the community and facilitates a process of shared discovery and joint decisions about projects ...The whole 3-D modelling process involves gathering information, analysing the situation, lobbying, awareness raising, exploration, capitalisation, decision making, territorial management, monitoring ... It really is a multi-functional tool.

What is the main focus of your organisation?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona: BIMTT is an association of over 90 organisations that are attached to the Council of Christian Churches in Madagascar (FFKM). These organisations may be research institutions, development agencies, NGOs, state or private technical agricultural departments, farmer groups, etc. Our main mission is to organise discussions, develop members' capacity to link up with each other and with other institutions, and strengthen their technical and pedagogical capacities so that they can work effectively to encourage initiatives and innovations in the field. We're a big network that covers the whole of the main island. It's also worth noting that the Christian community has a huge influence on development in Madagascar. Statistics show that 70% of rural training centres in Madagascar are attached to the church – although our member organisations collaborate with all farmers, regardless of their religion. What we're interested in is how activities link up with and complement each other, and how to organise interventions so that activities and organisations don't overlap. It's all about synergy – how to consolidate members, make them organisationally and economically autonomous, help them conquer local and then international markets! BIMTT provides all kinds of managerial support. Every member organisation has its own project and activities, and we're there to help them, build their capacities and strengthen their internal and external collaboration.

How can P3DM help your network? How can it improve the synergy between your activities?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona: One of the current weaknesses of our network is that members work in isolation, everyone's in their own little corner. We need to work together to improve the quality and quantity of our output! As artisanal sculptors know to their cost, Madagascar is seen as a kind of test country – good for a few samples but not large orders. We've got some areas where projects are vying to do the same activity in one place, but nothing next door. Our technicians worry that local people are becoming resistant to change, especially when intervening agencies contradict each other! There's a crying need for coordination, for synergy between activities, and for people to exchange ideas. All this can be done around a 3-D map. Local people, the authorities and other actors in Ampefy have started discussing how to protect Lake Itasy, which is the second biggest lake in Madagascar and is seriously threatened by environmental degradation. 3-D maps can also help those of our members that lack the resources, enthusiasm and information to get development projects off the ground. For example, during a P3DM exercise in the village of Andranomafana Betafo Antsirabe, which had recurrent problems with drinking water, discussions started around the possibility of installing a well-placed fountain that could serve the whole village. People became enthusiastic and individuals got involved. One of our main activities at the moment is helping communities where our members work to prepare communal and village development plans (CDPs and VDPs). Most of our members are closely involved in this kind of activity, and these plans are a vital development tool for communities that are seeking assistance and funding. These communities need to take responsibility for their own future, and be committed and informed so that they can engage in the development process ... Which is where 3-D modelling comes in. Our technicians are familiar with participatory 2-D mapping and doing sketches on bits of packaging, but 3-D models are so much better because they are accurate, concrete, accessible to everyone regardless of whether or not they can read, easy to understand, participatory and dynamic. They also cost half as much as CDPs, which need expensive surveys. In fact, 3-D maps are an effective tool for designing these communal development plans because they involve different village actors, encourage exchanges and discussions, gather information and show the history of the village, preventive measures to be taken and even decisions that have been made. Over time, data are updated and everyone helps put the new information on the model. They are a quick, participatory and affordable way of getting the job done. In short, they're just what people need!

How has the network appropriated the P3DM process?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona: After the FTA training, which was supported by CTA, our board of directors unanimously supported the idea of sharing this tool with different members of the network. BIMTT produced a documentary film about the P3DM process, which was shown on national TV, and sent every member a DVD of it. This tool is generating a lot of enthusiasm, but it'll be a few years before we have the budget or capacity to scale up the process among all our members. BIMTT has selected the first five localities where models will be produced. Three will be of mid-western villages – Atalata Vaovao, Mahiatrondro and Ampanasanatongotra in Itasy region; one model will cover the commune of Andranomafana in the central highlands of Betafo, and the last one will be of Sahoragna fishing village in the east coast of Toamasina province.

How will these models be funded?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona: BIMTT has not received any funding for these models apart from pedagogical and documentary support from CTA. We're not expected to fund their production – that's up to each member institution. But as I said, members are interested, and I'm hoping that this will be reflected in their next investment budget. BIMTT's mission is to support its members, and this includes helping them find financial partners for 3-D modelling. At the moment we're trying to find ways of helping with the overall costs of modelmaking. We managed to limit the time spent on 3-D mapping to two days (plus preparation) without compromising the participatory spirit of the process, and after lobbying CTA our technicians received training on ARCGIS software so that they can produce the contour maps that are needed to make the models. This is really important because these maps take up almost half of the overall budget for producing a model: the total cost per model is 1.4 million ariary (650 Euros), and the national mapping centre (FTM) sells contour maps for 800,000 ariary (250 Euros).

What are your plans for the future?

Rajoelisolo Kotondrajaona: Over the next two years we plan to train at least one technician for each of our 91 member institutions. That should give us at least 200 trained technicians and about 200 models. The idea is to start training trainers so that every member will get on-the-job training as they go through the participatory model-making process, and can then train the people they go on to collaborate with. The ultimate plan is for the whole network to make 3-D models that can be used for communal and village development plans so that member organisations and communities can use them to take charge of their own development.

Interview by Mamy Andriatiana

Strength from synergy: Bringing communities together to better support them

Financial partners and technical ministerial departments believe that support for rural Madagascans will be more effective if it is delivered to clusters of village and community groups, associations and communes. In 2014 the government opted for a market economy-oriented policy to promote rural development, and adopted various measures to improve the quality and quantity of outputs. One idea was to promote village associations – the bigger, the better – with associations of groups, federated associations, platforms for federations and clusters of communes. These groupings make it easier to coordinate activities and strengthen synergies between actions, and are favoured by partners and country managers as they tend to result in more secure and efficient projects and businesses and more flexible and harmonious arrangements for training, credit, finance, repayments, skill transfers and monitoring of activities. They also enable support organisations to collaborate on assistance to large associations that work in various fields. In the region of Itasy in mid-western Madagsacar, the Swiss Cooperation co-financed inter-communal cooperation through the SAHA programme and the American development agency USAID. Three communes (Ampefy, Analavory and Anosibe Ifanja) formed the 3A Miroso association. There are about 100 groups of associations listed in this region, including a group of village associations supported by the Regional Directorate for Rural Development, the Lutheran NGO FAFAFI, the Protestant NGO SAF Fjkm, the Catholic NGO ADDM, and BIMTT... The 3-D modelling process encourages community solidarity and collaboration between support organisations, and in doing so helps create greater synergy between their actions.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Pêcheurs malgaches à bout de souffle : la modélisation participative trois-D confirme les acquis et ouvre les horizons

Interview avec Tsiza Ernest, président de l’association des pêcheurs à Sahoragna, Madagascar

Tsiza Ernest, Président de l'Association des pêcheurs, dénommée « La Baleine » composée d'une dizaine de membres, est un pêcheur sexagénaire du littoral-Est de la Grande île du quartier du Sahoragna, de la Commune de Fenerive Est à 500 km de la capitale. Son association est minée par des problèmes qui gangrènent leur métier. Le processus de la modélisation participative en trois dimensions (MP3D) est arrivé à point nommé leur apportant de nouvelles perspectives tout en consolidant leurs acquis.

Qu'est ce qui vous amène à dire que la MP3D est arrivé à temps?

Tsiza Ernest : Effectivement, l'apprentissage de la MP3D était venu comme une bouffée d'oxygène pour la filière, pour l'association et pour ma famille en particulier. Nos problèmes ne datent pas d'aujourd'hui, mais je dois dire que nous avons frôlé la limite de l'acceptable. Comment voulez-vous que j'arrête mes activités au printemps de ma carrière ? Je n'ai plus le choix. Si auparavant, la pêche a nourri convenablement son homme, aujourd'hui faute de productions, nous devons diversifier nos sources de revenus et pratiquer d'autres activités pour joindre les deux bouts. Heureusement au début de l'année 2016, lorsque nous avons participé aux activités d'apprentissage du processus de la modélisation participative en trois dimensions (MP3D) avec l'accompagnement du BIMTT (Bureau de Liaison des Institutions de Formation en milieu Rural à Madagascar) soutenu par le CTA, l'espoir renaît progressivement. Tous les participants s'accordent à dire que nous pouvons faire quelque chose, recoller les morceaux pour éradiquer le mal qui entrave les activités de la pêche. Le processus de la MP3D nous a mis au même pied d'égalité dans la compréhension de la situation. Elle nous a donné une opportunité pour réfléchir ensemble autour de la maquette, échanger les idées et prendre les dispositions adéquates. La participation de tous les représentants des acteurs de la pêche a facilité l'exercice : les pêcheurs, la mairie, la Direction Régionale de la Pêche (DRP), la communauté religieuse Saint Benoît, les autorités traditionnelles...Tous les pêcheurs occupant le large de 30 km du littoral Est ont été représentés. Tout le monde était là.

Quels sont les problèmes rencontrés et les solutions préconisées ?

Tsiza Ernest : La surexploitation résultant d'une pêche illicite. Ces dix dernières années, nos produits de pêche ont chuté considérablement. Aujourd'hui, il nous faut aller de plus en plus loin pour espérer pêcher davantage. Chacun fait ce que bon lui semble. La fermeture de la pêche n'est pas réglementée, la taille minimale de capture ni la capture maximale n'est pas limitée, les matériels utilisés ne respectent aucune norme, les zones d'exploitation ne sont pas délimitées. Bref : Péril en la demeure. En effet, il n'est pas rare de trouver des inconnus, ou mêmes des exploitants chinois qui débarquent avec leurs canots motorisés raflant tout sur leur passage, des individus qui illuminent avec des feux de projecteur les endroits sensibles, tels que zones de ponte ou grandes habitations des crustacés. Les conséquences en sont graves, tel qu'un feu de brousse, puisqu'ils délogent ainsi les occupants de leurs habitats pour mieux les chasser par la suite. C'est tout simplement une manière de voler nos ressources ! D'autres usent des moustiquaires au lieu et place des filets. Aussi ramasse-t-il tout jusqu'aux œufs. Tout cela est au vu et au su des autorités qui ne font rien. Au niveau de l'association, nous avons bénéficié des formations en pêche maritime responsable, nous avons adopté une convention qui nous oblige à respecter le métier. C'est à dire : utiliser des filets conventionnels, abandonner les poissons de petite taille, observer les périodes de ponte...Mais les autres s'en foutent, c'est comme si nous, les légalistes, qui sommes les imbéciles. Dès fois, nous attrapons certains d'entre eux en flagrant délit, mais nous n'y pouvons rien faire. Nous n'avons pas le pouvoir de les arrêter, ni même de les inquiéter. A mon avis, il manque pour l'heure une coordination dans les actions de lutte contre la pêche illicite à Madagascar en général et dans notre circonscription en particulier.

Que peut-il apporter le processus de la MP3D devant cette situation dégradante ?

Tsiza Ernest : Que chacun prenne sa part de responsabilité. De l'instance ministérielle, jusqu'aux petits pêcheurs en passant par la direction régionale de la pêche et la Mairie. Des plaidoyers ont été faits à maintes reprises auprès des autorités compétentes. La loi en vigueur, condamnant la pêche illégale, existe mais reste lettre morte. Les gouvernants ont du mal à rassembler le monde de la pêche autour d'une table. C'est justement, l'opportunité donnée par le processus 3D car elle dispose de ce pouvoir magistral : celui de réunir tous les protagonistes, au même moment, au même endroit, autour de la maquette. Chacun, expose leur préoccupation, formule leur défense, émet leurs idées. C'est tout simplement la carte sur table, le cas de le dire. C'est ainsi que l'idée d'élaborer un « Dina » ou convention interne a été discutée avec le consentement de la mairie et de la Direction Régionale de la Pêche représentés lors de l'apprentissage. Le Dina est une convention établie par les acteurs locaux de la pêche au niveau de la Commune et de la District. Cette convention devait déboucher sur la délimitation de l'espace marine locale ou le quadrillage, l'organisation et la discipline interne, la fermeture de la pêche, la normalisation des matériels et au bout les sanctions. Outre le Dina, l'idée d'immatriculer les pirogues et d'éditer des cartes de pêcheurs a surgi également pendant l'exercice afin d'identifier le vrai de l'ivraie. La Mairie et la DRP ont prévu organiser conjointement un atelier de travail et de validation de tout ce que nous a révélé l'exercice du processus MP3D. Par ailleurs, la mise à jour de la maquette a été fortement recommandée par les acteurs afin d'améliorer le Dina, au fur et à mesure en fonction des réalités existantes mais aussi de l'évolution du climat. Après la validation des textes réglementaires, par le biais du Dina, la Mairie et la DRP entendent également créer une plate forme de tous les acteurs dans la filière pêche dans notre circonscription. Cette structure sera le garant d'une coordination effective des activités de la pêche dans le secteur.

Quel profit pour vous et vos entourages ?

Tsiza Ernest : Pour moi personnellement, cela a tout d'abord confirmé la consistance de mes acquis et de mes vielles connaissances. J'ai été formé sur le tas. Nous avons des compréhensions, notamment sur la structure du corail, les récifs, l'emplacement des zones de ponte des langoustes et des crevettes, l'identification des zones dangereuses, des fonds sableux etc. Ce qui m'a émerveillé c'est que tout cela a été reproduit sur la maquette avec la collaboration active des ainés du village, des techniciens de la pêche et de la communauté entière. Nos connaissances ne nous ont pas trahi, tout cela s'est avéré juste et vrai : un recoupement, une confirmation de nos savoir-faire sur le métier. Maintenant, je suis fier de moi-même, que ce que j'avais fait depuis belle lurette tient débout sur des bases scientifiques ! Quoiqu'il en soit, mes connaissances ont également montré ses limites ? Il me manquait la précision. J'avais une idée approximative sur l'existence de mangroves dans un endroit déterminé, de zones de ponte, mais je ne connais pas le détail. Ni la dimension, ni la profondeur ni la superficie...C'est là l'intérêt de la carte en 3D. Les informations sont toutes affichées sur la maquette : distance, profondeur, dimension, température, datation. Par ailleurs, les expériences de l'exercice MP3D me donnent des idées de tout ce que je peux faire dans le futur. D'abord pour limiter le dégât, stabiliser la situation mais aussi planifier des projets. Ma famille a également profité de l'exercice MP3D. Elle devient un partenaire actif et se sent concernée par les enjeux de la pêche maritime. Ma femme, après avoir découvert la richesse de notre zone côtière, à travers les informations sur la maquette, m'a beaucoup aidé dans les initiatives de plaidoyers que notre association devait faire auprès des autorités communales. Les enfants en tant que fils de pêcheurs, ont maintenant acquis une bonne dose de connaissance sur l'environnement de la pêche dans notre localité. Je vois un transfert direct, facile et rapide de connaissances.

Quelles sont vos perspectives ?

Tsiza Ernest : Plus tard, lorsque tout sera en ordre, je peux lancer mes propres projets pour augmenter la production. Et d'attaquer l'exploitation des produits de haut de gamme, tels que langoustes, huitres, moules...Mais pour y parvenir, beaucoup de chose doit être établie au préalable : formation des exploitants, assainissement de la filière, disponibilité de moyens matériels, cohésion des pêcheurs. Il faut également mettre en œuvre une mesure d'accompagnement au développement des autres activités génératrices de revenus pendant la fermeture de la pêche.

Par ailleurs, nous souhaitons ériger carrément un parc au sein de notre délimitation. Ce sera une zone protégée, exploitée d'une manière responsable et rationnelle pour s'assurer de la durabilité de l'exploitation. Ce parc va servir de référence, une vitrine, pour tous nos voisins afin qu'ils aient une idée sur une pêche saine respectueuse de l'environnement. Dans cette perspective, il est clair que cela passe par une MP3D, une maquette spéciale « Parc » sur laquelle les informations et surtout les réglementations sont affichées. En outre, la mise en place d'une fédération des associations de pêcheurs s'avère importante. Le directeur régional de la pêche en a évoqué durant le processus de la MP3D. C'est d'une importance capitale dans la mesure où les pêcheurs puissent discuter et échanger leurs idées et à termes négocier directement avec les différents partenaires. Je vois la MP3D y jouer un rôle important en mettant à la même longueur d'onde tous les pêcheurs. Je souhaite enfin que les autres villages et Communes voisines disposent également de leurs propres maquettes. Cela évitera beaucoup de conflits et contribuera au développement de la filière, dans la mesure où tous les pêcheurs ont le même niveau d'informations et de connaissances.

Monday, March 20, 2017

Light at the end of the tunnel for Malagasy fishermen

Interview with Tisza Ernest, president of a ten-member fishermen’s association in Sahoragna, Madagascar

60-year old Tsiza Ernest is President of a ten-member fishermen's association (The Whale) in Sahoragna neighbourhood, in the east coast commune of Fenerive Est some 500 km from the capital. As the problems that are destroying fishermen's livelihoods threatened to overwhelm his association, the Participatory 3D Modelling (P3DM) process provided timely confirmation of their achievements and prospects for the future.

Why do you say that P3DM came just in time for you?

Tsiza Ernest: The P3DM learning process was like a shot in the arm for the sector, the association and especially for my family. Things had been difficult for a while and we were getting really desperate, but I can't stop being a fisherman now. I have no choice but to carry on. We used to be able to make a decent living from fishing but now we need several sources of income to make ends meet. Thankfully, things have seemed a bit more hopeful since the Liaison Office for Rural Training Institutions (BIMTT) ran some sessions on participatory 3-D modelling (P3DM) in early 2016, with support from CTA. We all came away feeling that we could do something to address the problems and get fishing back on its feet again. The P3DM process helped everyone understand the situation and gave us the opportunity to think about it together around the model, exchange ideas and take appropriate measures. It was a really useful exercise because representatives from different parts of the fishing industry were there – fishermen, staff from the town hall, the Regional Directorate for Fisheries (DRP), the Saint Benoît religious community, traditional authorities, etc. All the fishermen who work in a 30km-stretch of the east coast were represented. Everyone was there.

What are the problems and how can they be resolved?

Tsiza Ernest: The main issue is over-exploitation due to illegal fishing. Our output has fallen considerably over the last 10 years, and nowadays we have to go much further afield to have any hope of catching something. It's a free-for-all. There's no regulated closed fishing season, no limits on minimum or maximum sizes, no standardised equipment and no properly demarcated fishing zones. This is an emergency. It's not unusual to come across strangers or Chinese fishermen in motorboats that swallow up everything in their path. People also use floodlights in sensitive areas such as spawning grounds or large shellfish beds, and this has serious consequences – like a bushfire that displaces creatures from their habitat and makes it easier to flush them out in future. They're coming in and stealing our resources! Some people use mosquito nets instead of fishing nets, which take everything, right down to the eggs. The authorities just turn a blind eye to it. Our association has been trained on responsible marine fishing and we've adopted a convention that obliges us to respect our profession. We use conventional nets, we've stopped catching small fish, observe spawning periods, etc. – but other people don't care, so those of us who abide by the law look like idiots. We can't do anything even when we catch people red-handed, as we don't have the power to stop them or even threaten them. There doesn't seem to be any coordinated effort to crack down on illegal fishing in Madagascar, especially in our area.

How can the P3DM process help this deteriorating situation?

Tsiza Ernest: Everyone has a responsibility to do something, from ministerial bodies and the regional Directorate for Fisheries to town hall officials and individual fishermen. The relevant authorities have been lobbied repeatedly, the current law condemns illegal fishing but is ignored, and the authorities seem to find it hard to get different members of the fishing industry together around the table. That's why the P3DM process is so powerful, because it brings all the protagonists together around the model at the same place and the same time. Everyone has a chance to voice their concerns, defend their position, share their ideas and put their cards on the table. That's how the idea of developing an internal convention (Dina) came up and was supported by the town hall and the Regional Directorate for Fisheries. This convention is agreed by local actors from the fishing industry at the commune and district level and should lead to the demarcation of our local marine area, proper internal organisation and discipline, a closed fishing season, standardised equipment and finally to sanctions. The idea of registering pirogues and issuing fishermen with cards also emerged during the exercise, so that we know who should and shouldn't be fishing in our waters. We were strongly advised to update the model so we can improve the Dina, so it better reflects the current situation and takes account of future changes. After validating the regulatory texts through the Dina, the town hall and DRP also plan to create a platform for all actors in our local fishing industry, to ensure that activities in this sector are properly coordinated.

How will this help you and your fellow fishermen?

Tsiza Ernest: For me personally, it confirmed that what I have learned and achieved over the years still stands up. We fishermen learn everything on the job: the structure of coral and reefs, the location of lobster and prawn spawning grounds, how to identify danger areas, quicksand, etc. I was amazed that you can see all of this on the model we made together – older villagers, fishery technicians, the whole community. The model shows that our knowledge still holds true, confirms everything we know about fishing. Now I feel proud of myself, that what I've been doing for all these years stands up on a scientific basis! I'm aware that my knowledge is limited and imprecise – I had a vague idea that there were mangroves and spawning grounds in certain areas, but didn't have detailed information about their size, depth or area ... That's what's so great about the 3-D map, because it gives all the information on distance, depth, size, temperature, date, etc. And the P3DM exercise gave me ideas about what I can do in the future to reduce damage, stabilise the situation and plan projects. My family also learned a lot from the process, they've become active partners and take an interest in issues that affect marine fishing. The model showed my wife how rich our coastline is, and since then she's really helped the association lobby the municipal authorities. Our sons also learned a huge amount about the fishing environment in our area from the 3-D model – it's a quick, easy and direct way of transferring knowledge.

What are your plans for the future?

Tsiza Ernest: Once things have settled down a bit, I can get on with my own plans to increase production and move into high-end products such as lobster, oysters, mussels, etc. But there's a lot to be done before that can happen: fishermen need to be trained, the value chain has to be cleaned up, resources made available, and fishermen need to work together. We also need measures to support the development of other income-generating activities during the closed season.

Another thing we want to do is create a protected area within our fishing grounds, a 'marine park' that will be used responsibly and sustainably so that we can safeguard the future of our industry. This area will be a reference point, a showcase so that all our neighbours can see how environmentally sound fishing can be done. We'll need to use P3DM and make a special model of the 'park' showing all the information and especially the regulations relating to this area. During the P3DM process, the regional director of fisheries also highlighted the need to set up a federation of fishermen's associations, as this can provide an important platform for fishermen to discuss and exchange ideas and ultimately negotiate directly with different partners. I think P3DM can play a key role in getting all fishermen onto the same wavelength. And finally, I'd like all the other villages and neighbouring communes to have their own models because giving every fisherman access to the same information and knowledge will help prevent conflicts and contribute to the development of the sector.